The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud is a complete edition of the works of Sigmund Freud. It was translated from the German under the general editorship of James Strachey, in collaboration with Anna Freud, assisted by Alix Strachey and Alan Tyson. The Standard Edition (usually abbreviated as SE) consists of 24 volumes, and it was originally published by the Hogarth Press in London in 1953–1974. Unlike the German Gesammelte Werke, the SE contains critical footnotes by the editors. This editorial material has later been included in the German-language Studienausgabe edition of Freud.
Please note that The Standard Edition of Freud’s works in English confuses two terms that are different in German, Instinkt (“instinct”) and Trieb (“drive”), often translating both as instinct; for example, “the hypothesis of a death instinct, the task of which is to lead organic life back into the inanimate state”. This equating of instinkt and Trieb has created serious misunderstandings.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, Austrian Empire (now the Czech Republic). Between the ages of four and eighty-two his home was in Vienna; in 1938 Hitler’s invasion of Austria forced him to seek asylum in London, where he died in the following year. His career began with several years of brilliant work on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. He was almost thirty when, after a period of study under Charcot in Paris, his interests first turned to psychology, and another ten years of clinical work in Vienna (at first in collaboration with Breuer, an older colleague) saw the birth of his creation, psychoanalysis. This began simply as a method of treating neurotic patients by investigating their minds, but it quickly grew into an accumulation of knowledge about the workings of the mind in general, whether sick or healthy. Freud was thus able to demonstrate the normal development of the sexual instinct in childhood and, largely on the basis of an examination of dreams, arrived at his fundamental discovery of the unconscious forces that influence our everyday thoughts and actions. Freud’s life was uneventful, but his ideas have shaped not only many specialist disciplines, but the whole intellectual climate of the last half century.
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The standard edition of Sigmund Freud’s classic work on the psychology and significance of dreams
First published in 1899, Sigmund Freud’s groundbreaking book, The Interpretation of Dreams, explores why we dream and why dreams matter in our psychological lives. Delving into theories of manifest and latent dream content, the special language of dreams, dreams as wish fulfillments, the significance of childhood experiences, and much more, Freud offers an incisive and enduringly relevant examination of dream psychology. Encompassing dozens of case histories and detailed analyses of actual dreams, this landmark work grants us unique insight into our sleeping experiences.
Renowned for translating Freud’s German writings into English, James Strachey–with the assistance of Freud’s daughter Anna–first published this edition in 1953. Incorporating all textual alterations made by Freud over a period of thirty years, it remains the most complete translation of the work in print.
In Freud’s view we are driven by the desire for pleasure, as well as by the desire to avoid pain. But the pursuit of pleasure has never been a simple thing. Pleasure can be a form of fear, a form of memory and a way of avoiding reality. Above all, as these essays show with remarkable eloquence, pleasure is a way in which we repeat ourselves.
The essays collected in this volume explore, in Freud’s uniquely subtle and accessible style, the puzzles of pleasure and morality and the enigmas of human development.
On the Introduction of Narcissism
Remembering, Repeating and Working Through
Beyond the Pleasure Principle
The Ego and the Id
Inhibition, Symptom and Fear
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia; from 1860 until Hitler’s invasion of Austria in 1938 he lived in Vienna. He was then forced to seek asylum in London, where he died the following year. He began his career as a doctor, specialising in work on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. He was almost thirty when his interests first turned to psychology, and during ten years of clinical work in Vienna he developed the practice of what he called ‘psychoanalysis’. This began simply as a method of treating neurotic patients by investigating their minds, but it quickly grew into an investigation of the workings of the mind in general, both ill or healthy. Freud demonstrated the normal development of the sexual instinct in childhood and, largely on the basis of an examination of dreams, arrived at his fundamental discovery of the unconscious forces that influence our everyday thoughts and actions. Freud’s ideas have shaped not only many specialist disciplines, but have also influenced the entire intellectual climate of the last century.
Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer is one of the seminal works of political philosophy in recent decades. A twenty-year undertaking, this project is a series of interconnected investigations of staggering ambition and scope investigating the deepest foundations of every major Western institution and discourse.
This single book brings together for the first time all nine volumes that make up this groundbreaking project. Each volume takes a seemingly obscure and outdated issue as its starting point—an enigmatic figure in Roman law, or medieval debates about God’s management of creation, or theories about the origin of the oath—but is always guided by questions with urgent contemporary relevance.
Giorgio Agamben is a contemporary Italian philosopher and political theorist whose works have been translated into numerous languages.
I. HOMO SACER: Sovereign Power and Bare Life Contents Introduction
PART ONE: THE LOGIC OF SOVEREIGNTY 1. The Paradox of Sovereignty 2. ‘Nomos Basileus’ 3. Potentiality and Law 4. Form of Law Threshold
PART TWO: HOMO SACER 1. Homo Sacer 2. The Ambivalence of the Sacred 3. Sacred Life 4. ‘Vitae Necisque Potestas’ 5. Sovereign Body and Sacred Body 6. The Ban and the Wolf Threshold
PART THREE: THE CAMP AS BIOPOLITICAL PARADIGM OF THE MODERN 1. The Politicization of Life 2. Biopolitics and the Rights of Man 3. Life That Does Not Deserve to Live 4. ‘Politics, or Giving Form to the Life of a People’ 5. VP 6. Politicizing Death 7. The Camp as the ‘Nomos’ of the Modern Threshold Bibliography
II, 1. STATE OF EXCEPTION Contents Translator’s Note 1. The State of Exception as a Paradigm of Government 2. Force-of-Law 3. Iustitium 4. Gigantomachy Concerning a Void 5. Feast, Mourning, Anomie 6. Auctoritas and Potestas Bibliography
II, 2. STASIS: Civil War as a Political Paradigm Contents Foreword 1. Stasis 2. Leviathan and Behemoth Bibliography
II, 3. THE SACRAMENT OF LANGUAGE: An Archaeology of the Oath Contents Translator’s Note Abbreviations The Sacrament of Language Bibliography
II, 4. THE KINGDOM AND THE GLORY: For a Theological Genealogy of Economy and Government Contents Translator’s Note Preface 1. The Two Paradigms Threshold 2. The Mystery of the Economy Threshold 3. Being and Acting Threshold 4. The Kingdom and the Government Threshold 5. The Providential Machine Threshold 6. Angelology and Bureaucracy Threshold 7. The Power and the Glory Threshold 8. The Archaeology of Glory Threshold Appendix: The Economy of the Moderns 1. The Law and the Miracle 2. The Invisible Hand Bibliography
II, 5. OPUS DEI: An Archaeology of Duty Contents Translator’s Note Preface 1. Liturgy and Politics Threshold 2. From Mystery to Effect Threshold 3. A Genealogy of Office Threshold 4. The Two Ontologies; or, How Duty Entered into Ethics Threshold Bibliography
III. REMNANTS OF AUSCHWITZ: The Witness and the Archive Contents Preface 1. The Witness 2. The Muselmann 3. Shame, or On the Subject 4. The Archive and Testimony Bibliography
IV, 1. THE HIGHEST POVERTY: Monastic Rules and Form-of-Life Contents Translator’s Note Preface
PART ONE: RULE AND LIFE 1. Birth of the Rule 2. Rule and Law 3. Flight from the World and Constitution Threshold
PART TWO: LITURGY AND RULE 1. Regula Vitae 2. Orality and Writing 3. The Rule as a Liturgical Text Threshold
PART THREE: FORM-OF-LIFE 1. The Discovery of Life 2. Renouncing Law 3. Highest Poverty and Use Threshold Bibliography
IV, 2. THE USE OF BODIES Contents Translator’s Note Prefatory Note Prologue
PART ONE: THE USE OF BODIES 1. The Human Being without Work 2. Chresis 3. Use and Care 4. The Use of the World 5. Use-of-Oneself 6. Habitual Use 7. The Animate Instrument and Technology 8. The Inappropriable Intermezzo I
PART TWO: AN ARCHEOLOGY OF ONTOLOGY 1. Ontological Apparatus 2. Theory of Hypostases 3. Toward a Modal Ontology Intermezzo II
III. FORM-OF-LIFE 1. Life Divided 2. A Life Inseparable from Its Form 3. Living Contemplation 4. Life Is a Form Generated by Living 5. Toward an Ontology of Style 6. Exile of One Alone with One Alone 7. “That’s How We Do It” 8. Work and Inoperativity 9. The Myth of Er Epilogue: Toward a Theory of Destituent Potential Bibliography Index
The book brings together texts by authors such as Giorgio Agamben, Slavoj Žižek, Judith Butler, María Galindo and Byung-Chul Han, among others.
In a compilation of writings published between February 26 and March 28 by thinkers from all over the world, the Argentine professor Pablo Amadeo seeks that the title Wuhan Soup reflects “recent controversies around the scenarios that open up with the coronavirus pandemic, views on the present and hypotheses about the future ”.
The first writing found in the publication – open access – is “The invention of an epidemic”, by the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben. In this text the author explains that in the face of the impact of the coronavirus raised by the National Research Council of Italy, which establishes that between 80 and 90 percent of cases present mild symptoms, there are two possible explanations for the media and authorities spread a state of panic.
Agamben argues that one of the reasons is that “having exhausted terrorism as the cause of exceptional measures, the invention of an epidemic may offer the ideal pretext to extend them beyond all limits”; while the other reason is “the real need for states of collective panic” on the part of society; “Thus, in a perverse vicious circle, the limitation of freedom imposed by governments is accepted in the name of a desire for security that has been induced by the same governments that now intervene to satisfy it.”
In contrast and in response to the previous text, Jean-Luc Nancy exposes in “Viral Exception” that “Giorgio says that governments take all kinds of pretexts to establish continuous states of exception. But he does not realize that the exception becomes, in reality, the rule in a world in which the technical interconnections of all species (movements, transfers of all kinds, exposure or diffusion of substances, etc.) reach a hitherto unknown intensity and that grows with the population ”.
In “Coronavirus is a Kill Bill-style capitalist coup,” Slovenian Slavoj Žižek poses an analogy in which the fall of the Chinese Communist government, caused by the COVID-19 crisis, is akin to the attack of the “Technique of Exploiting Heart of the Five Point Palm ”, used in the final scene of the movie Kill Bill. This technique is characterized by the time that elapses between the end of the attack and the death of the victim, which results in a comparison of the time in quarantine that China has spent, in which “the authorities can sit, observe and pass through the movements, but any real change in the social order (like trusting people) will result in their downfall. ”
However, for the sociologist, capitalism represents not so much an attack on the Chinese communist system, but rather on capitalism in general, “a sign that we cannot follow the path hitherto, that radical change is necessary.” In addition to this, the thinker maintains that as he has been portrayed in various catastrophic utopias that give way to solidarity, “here we are today, in real life”.
He adds that “the coronavirus increasingly disrupts the proper functioning of the world market and, as we hear, growth may fall by one, two or three percent”, while wondering if “does all this not clearly indicate the need urgent of a reorganization of the global economy that will no longer be at the mercy of market mechanisms? ”
Chaos, discrimination and dictatorship
Judith Butler, in “Capitalism Has Its Limits,” begins by stating that the coronavirus does not discriminate; however, he alludes to Donald Trump’s offer to try to buy, in Germany, the exclusive rights to a vaccine, and ends by stating that “social and economic inequality will ensure that the virus discriminates. The virus alone does not discriminate, but humans surely do, shaped as we are by the interlocking powers of nationalism, racism, xenophobia and capitalism.”
On the other hand, the Uruguayan Raúl Zibechi writes in “At the gates of a new world order”, that “we enter a period of chaos in the world-system, which is the precondition for the formation of a new global order”. He maintains that the leadership of the United States and Europe is transferred to Asia; “The pandemic is the grave of neoliberal globalization, while the pandemic of the future will be a ‘kinder’ globalization, focused on China and Asia Pacific.”
Bolivian activist María Galindo affirms in “Disobedience, because of you I am going to survive”, that “the coronavirus, more than a disease, seems to be a form of multi-governmental world police and military dictatorship.” He points out that in addition to the fear of contagion, the coronavirus also turns out to be “an instrument that seems effective to erase, minimize, hide or put in parentheses other social and political problems that we have been conceptualizing.
In this same sense, the author claims that in this context of illness, millions of euros of bailout of her colonial economies appear to settle rents, utility bills, salaries, when all that proletarian mass was cutting the sky, saying that there was no where to pay the social debt.
Finally, and regarding the arrival of the disease in Latin American countries such as Bolivia, he declares that dengue and coronavirus greeted each other, tuberculosis and cancer were on one side, which in this part of the world are death sentences, since in that Instead what is done is to repeat and copy the European measures, but without having the same resources.
Alain Badiou is arguably the most significant philosopher in Europe today. Badiou’s seminars, given annually on major conceptual and historical topics, constitute an enormously important part of his work. They served as laboratories for his thought and public illuminations of his complex ideas yet remain little known. This book, the transcript of Badiou’s year-long seminar on the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan, is the first volume of his seminars to be published in English, opening up a new and vital aspect of his thinking.
In a highly original and compelling account of Lacan’s theory and therapeutic practice, Badiou considers the challenge that Lacan poses to fundamental philosophical topics such as being, the subject, and truth. Badiou argues that Lacan is a singular figure of the “anti-philosopher,” a series of thinkers stretching back to Saint Paul and including Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, with Lacan as the last great anti-philosopher of modernity. The book offers a forceful reading of an enigmatic yet foundational thinker and sheds light on the crucial role that Lacan plays in Badiou’s own thought. This seminar, more accessible than some of Badiou’s more difficult works, will be profoundly valuable for the many readers across academic disciplines, art and literature, and political activism who find his thought essential.
Two controversial thinkers discuss a timeless but nonetheless urgent question: should philosophy interfere in the world?
Nothing less than philosophy is at stake because, according to Badiou, philosophy is nothing but interference and commitment and will not be restrained by academic discipline. Philosophy is strange and new, and yet speaks in the name of all – as Badiou shows with his theory of universality.
Similarly, Žižek believes that the philosopher must intervene, contrary to all expectations, in the key issues of the time. He can offer no direction, but this only shows that the question has been posed incorrectly: it is valid to change the terms of the debate and settle on philosophy as abnormality and excess.
At once an invitation to philosophy and an introduction to the thinking of two of the most topical and controversial philosophers writing today, this concise volume will be of great interest to students and general readers alike.
Why communism? The greater the triumph of global capitalism, the more its dangerous antagonisms multiply: climate collapse, the digital manipulation of our lives, the explosion in refugee numbers – all need a radical solution. That solution is a Left that dares to speak its name, to get its hands dirty in the real world of contemporary politics, not to sling its insults from the sidelines or to fight a culture war that is merely a fig leaf covering its political and economic failures. As the crises caused by contemporary capitalism accumulate at an alarming rate, the Left finds itself in crisis too, beset with competing ideologies and prone to populism, racism, and conspiracy theories.
A Left that Dares to Speak Its Name is Žižek’s attempt to elucidate the major political issues of the day from a truly radical Leftist position. The first three parts explore the global political situation and the final part focuses on contemporary Western culture, as Žižek directs his polemic to topics such as wellness, Wikileaks, and the rights of sexbots. This wide-ranging collection of essays provides the perfect insight into the ideas of one of the most influential radical thinkers of our time.
Introduction: From the Communist Standpoint
THE GLOBAL MESS 1. 200 Years After: Is Marx Alive, Dead, or a Living Dead? 2. Why Secondary Contradictions Matter: A Maoist View 3. Nomadic Proletarians 4. Should the Left’s Answer to Rightist Populism Really Be a “Me Too”? 5. When Unfreedom Itself Is Experienced as Freedom 6. Only Autistic Children Can Save Us! 7. They Are Both Worse! 8. A Desperate Call for (T)Reason
THE WEST … 9. Democratic Socialism and Its Discontents 10. Is Donald Trump a Frog Embracing a Bottle of Beer? 11. Better Dead than Red! 12. “There Is Disorder Under Heaven, the Situation Is Excellent” 13. Soyons Réalistes, Demandons l’Impossible! 14. Catalonia and the End of Europe 15. Which Idea of Europe Is Worth Defending? 16. The Right to Tell the Public Bad News
… AND THE REST 17. It’s the Same Struggle, Dummy! 18. The Real Anti-Semites and Their Zionist Friends 19. Yes, Racism Is Alive and Well! 20. What Is To Be Done When Our Cupola Is Leaking? 21. Is China Communist or Capitalist? 22. Venezuela and the Need for New Clichés 23. Welcome to the True New World Order! 24. A True Miracle in Bosnia
IDEOLOGY 25. For Active Solidarity, Against Guilt and Self-Reproach 26. Sherbsky Institute, APA 27. Welcome to the Brave New World of Consenticorns! 28. Do Sexbots Have Rights? 29. Nipples, Penis, Vulva … and Maybe Shit 30. Cuaron’s Roma: The Trap of Goodness 31. Happiness? No, Thanks! 32. Assange Has Only Us to Help Him!
APPENDIX 33. Is Avital Ronell Really Toxic? Yes, it’s really about power! Two general concluding remarks on the Ronell case 34. Jordan Peterson as a Symptom … of What? The art of lying with truth A reply to my critics A concluding note on my debate with Peterson
Delumeau’s work is a sort of tour de force through the Museum of Spiritual History, wherein one can see “more than 600 years of guilt-instilling efforts.” “My book must therefore not be taken either as a refusal of guilt or the need for a consciousness of sin. On the contrary, I think it will shed light on the excessive sense of guilt and ‘culpabilization’ … that has characterized Western history.”
This extraordinary fresco draws the evolution of a pessimistic and punitive attitude regarding earthly life, which spread throughout Europe between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. Delumeau sees its origins in the ascetic ideals, in the “contemptus mundi” [“scorn of the world”], in the gloomy sense of sin and human frailty which, from the medieval monastic environment, widened in society thanks to what the author calls a “pastoral of fear”, that is, a pervasive pedagogy carried out by the sermons, the books of edification, the macabre iconography; a pedagogy of the rest parallel to the terrifying series of calamities and horrors of war that punctuated and terrified those centuries, and they had to appear as many punishments in search of a fault.
Introduction: A Cultural History of Sin
PART ONE: PESSIMISM AND THE MACABRE IN THE RENAISSANCE
1. Contempt for the World and Mankind An Old Theme The Reasons Behind “Contempt for the World” A Constantly Recurring Theme in the Fourteenth to Sixteenth Centuries The Mystics’ Version A Philosophy for all Christians Justification by Faith and the Need for Despair Along the Borders of the Protestant World: A Return to Otherworldliness
2. From Contempt for the World to the “Danse Macabre” “Familiarity” with Death The Components of the Macabre The Longevity of the Monastic Concept of Death Death and Conversion The Legend of the Three Living and the Three Dead The Danse of Death and the Danse Macabre
3. Ambiguity of the Macabre The Danse Macabre: A Sermon The Macabre and the Resurrection The Macabre and the Misfortunes of the Age The Macabre and Violence Diverging Significations
4. A Sinful World “An Age of Tears, Anguish, and Torment” (Eustache Deschamps) The Dream of the Golden Age World Upside Down, Perverse World Proliferation of the Monstrous Wickedness
5. Fragile Humanity The Disappearance of Reason Fate Melancholy
PART TWO: A FAILURE OF REDEMPTION?
6. Focusing the Examination of Conscience A Theology of Sin The Penitential Regimes Confessors’ Handbooks and Confession Manuals Sin in Lay Literature
7. The Realm of the Confessor Envy Lust Usury and Avarice Sloth The Iconography of Sin
8. Original Sin Original Sin at the Heart of a Culture The Origin of Evil and the Earthly Paradise The Authority of Saint Augustine Against Attenuated Guilt Original Sin and Opinions on Childhood Sanctuaries of Resuscitation: “A Vain Tenderness” ?
9. The Mass of Perdition and the System of Sin “Many Are Called But Few Are Chosen” Criminal Man and Terrible God A Collective Guilt Complex
10. Religious “Uneasiness” The Doctrine of Pain The Disease of Scruple The Difficulty of Death
PART THREE: AN EVANGELISM OF FEAR IN THE CATHOLIC WORLD
11. The Diffusion of a Religious Doctrine From Conviction to Tactics The Documents
12. “Think on It Well” The “Preparations for Death” Sermons and Hymns
13. The Tortures of the Afterlife Hell Purgatory, or Temporary Hell Toward the Infernal Temporary Hell in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
14. A “Lynx-eyed” God Judgment or Vengeance The Limits of Divine Benevolence
15. Sin and Sins Deadly and Venial Sin The Classification of Sins “Avarice” Marriage, a “Dangerous” Situation Impurity
16. The Ascetic Model “Nothing so Pleases God as a Thin Body” The Rejection of Amusement
17. The Difficulty of Obligatory Confession Sacrilegious Confessions Sacrilegious Confessions and Shameful Communions
18. The Catholic Doctrinal Campaign: An Attempt at Quantification
PART FOUR: IN THE PROTESTANT WORLD
19. ‘You Are a Terrifying Word, Eternity” Must One Instill Fear? Theology and Pedagogy
20. Shared Aspects of the Protestant and Catholic Doctrinal Programs The Emphasis on Death Other Last Ends and the Contemptus Mundi
21. Eschatology and Predestination The End Is Near Predestination and Election Fear of Reprobation
This sweeping exploration of the impact of epidemic diseases looks at how mass infectious outbreaks have shaped society, from the Black Death to today. In a clear and accessible style, Frank M. Snowden reveals the ways that diseases have not only influenced medical science and public health, but also transformed the arts, religion, intellectual history, and warfare.
A multidisciplinary and comparative investigation of the medical and social history of the major epidemics, this volume touches on themes such as the evolution of medical therapy, plague literature, poverty, the environment, and mass hysteria. In addition to providing historical perspective on diseases such as smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis, Snowden examines the fallout from recent epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Ebola and the question of the world’s preparedness for the next generation of diseases.
Frank M. Snowden is Andrew Downey Orrick Professor Emeritus of History and History of Medicine at Yale University. His previous books include The Conquest of Malaria: Italy, 1900–1962 and Naples in the Time of Cholera, 1884–1911.
Humoral Medicine: The Legacy of Hippocrates and Galen
Overview of the Three Plague Pandemics: 541 to ca. 1950
Plague as a Disease
Responses to Plague
Smallpox before Edward Jenner
The Historical Impact of Smallpox
War and Disease: Napoleon, Yellow Fever, and the Haitian Revolution
War and Disease: Napoleon, Dysentery, and Typhus in Russia, 1812
The Paris School of Medicine
The Sanitary Movement
The Germ Theory of Disease
Tuberculosis in the Romantic Era of Consumption
Tuberculosis in the Unromantic Era of Contagion
The Third Plague Pandemic: Hong Kong and Bombay
Malaria and Sardinia: Uses and Abuses of History
Polio and the Problem of Eradication
HIV/AIDS: An Introduction and the Case of South Africa
HIV/AIDS: The Experience of the United States
Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
Dress Rehearsals for the Twenty-First Century: SARS and Ebola