After being forcibly removed from the Ecuadorian Embassy, Julian Assange is now in a high security prison in London where he faces extradition to the United States and imprisonment for the rest of his life.
The charges Assange faces are a major threat to press freedom. James Goodale, who represented the New York Times in the Pentagon Papers case, commented: “The charge against Assange for ‘conspiring’ with a source is the most dangerous I can think of with respect to the First Amendment in all my years representing media organizations.”
It is critical now to build support for Assange and prevent his delivery into the hands of the American administration. That is the urgent purpose of this book. A wide range of distinguished contributors, many of them in original pieces, here set out the story of Julian Assange and WikiLeaks, the importance of their work, and the dangers for us all in the persecution they face. In Defense of Julian Assange is a vivid, vital intervention into one of the most important political issues of our day.
Contributors: Pamela Anderson, Julian Assange, Renata Avila, Katrin Axelsson, Franco “Bifo” Berardi, Sally Burch, Noam Chomsky, Patrick Cockburn, Naomi Colvin, The Courage Foundation, Mark Curtis, Daniel Ellsberg, Teresa Forcades i Vila, Charles Glass, Kevin Gosztola, Serge Halimi, Nozomi Hayase, Chris Hedges, Srećko Horvat, Caitlin Johnstone, Margaret Kimberley, Geoffroy de Lagasnerie, Lisa Longstaff, Alan MacLeod, Stefania Maurizi, Craig Murray, Fidel Narváez, John C. O’Day, John Pilger, Jesselyn Radack, Michael Ratner, Angela Richter, Geoffrey Robertson, Jennifer Robinson, Matt Taibbi, Natalia Viana, Ai Weiwei, Vivienne Westwood and Slavoj Žižek.
Umbr(a) was one of the most important US theory journals of the 1990s and early 2000s, publishing work by some of the greatest philosophers, psychoanalysts and theorists of our era. In every regard, it was ahead of the curve – in content, design, and style – often introducing thinkers who have subsequently become globally influential. Includes contributions from Joan Copjec, Sam Gillespie, Juliet Flower MacCannell , Charles Shepherdson, Russell Grigg, Alenka Zupančič, Slavoj Žižek, Mladen Dolar, Catherine Malabou, Tim Dean, Steven Miller, Dominiek Hoens, Petar Ramadanovic, Sigi Jöttkandt, Colette Soler, Jelica Šumič and A. Kiarina Kordela.
What does Lacan show us? He shows us that desire is not a biological function; that it is not correlated with a natural object; and that its object is fantasized. Because of this, desire is extravagant. It cannot be grasped by those who might try to master it. It plays tricks on them. Yet if it is not recognized, it produces symptoms. In psychoanalysis, the goal is to interpret – that is, to read – the message regarding desire that is harbored within the symptom.
Although desire upsets us, it also inspires us to invent artifices that can serve us as a compass. An animal species has a single natural compass. Human beings, on the other hand, have multiple compasses: signifying montages and discourses. They tell you what to do: how to think, how to enjoy, and how to reproduce. Yet each person’s fantasy remains irreducible to shared ideals.
Few philosophers can induce as much puzzlement among students as Hegel. His works are notoriously dense and make very few concessions for a readership unfamiliar with his systematic view of the world. Allen Speight’s introduction to Hegel’s philosophy takes a chronological perspective on the development of Hegel’s system. In this way, some of the most important questions in Hegelian scholarship are illuminated by examining in their respective contexts works such as the Phenomenology and the Logic.
Speight begins with the young Hegel and his writings prior to the Phenomenology focusing on the notion of positivity and how Hegel’s social, economic and religious concerns became linked to systematic and logical ones. He then examines the Phenomenology in detail, including its treatment of scepticism, the problem of immediacy, the transition from consciousness to self-consciousness , and the emergence of the social and historical category of Spirit . The following chapter explores the Logic, paying particular attention to a number of vexed issues associated with Hegel’s claims to systematicity and the relation between the categories of Hegel’s logic and nature or spirit (Geist). The final chapters discuss Hegel’s ethical and political thought and the three elements of his notion of absolute spirit: art, religion and philosophy, as well as the importance of history to his philosophical approach as a whole.
Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit has attracted much attention recently from philosophers, but none of the existing English-language books on the text addresses one of the most difficult questions the book raises: Why does the Phenomenology make such rich and provocative use of literary works and genres? Allen Speight’s bold contribution to the debate on the work of Hegel argues that behind Hegel’s extraordinary appeal to literature in the Phenomenology lies a philosophical project concerned with understanding human agency in the modern world. It shows that Hegel looked to three literary genres – tragedy, comedy, and the Romantic novel – as offering privileged access to three moments of human agency: retrospectivity, theatricality, and forgiveness. Taking full account of the authors whom Hegel himself refers to (Sophocles, Diderot, Schlegel, Jacobi), Allen Speight has written a book with a broad appeal to both philosophers and literary theorists.
The twenty-volume edition of over 11,000 pages, published by Eva Moldenhauer and Karl Markus Michel, is the easily accessible and inexpensive edition of the writings of these classics in the history of philosophy. From the early writings on the phenomenology of the mind and the encyclopedia to the lectures on the history of philosophy, it unites almost all of Hegel’s works.
Band 1: Frühe Schriften
Band 2: Jenaer Schriften 1801-1807
Band 3: Phänomenologie des Geistes
Band 4: Nürnberger und Heidelberger Schriften 1808-1817
Band 5: Wissenschaft der Logik I
Band 6: Wissenschaft der Logik II
Band 7: Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts
Band 8: Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften I
Band 9: Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften II
Band 10: Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften III
Band 11: Berliner Schriften 1818-1831
Band 12: Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte
Band 13: Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik I
Band 14: Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik II
Band 15: Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik III
Band 16: Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion I
Band 17: Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Religion II
Band 18: Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie I
Band 19: Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie II
Band 20: Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie III
In this major study, philosopher and cultural theorist Fredric Jameson offers an innovative reading of a book that forms part of the bedrock of modern Western thought: Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit.
Whereas other writers have interpreted the Phenomenology as a rigidly closed system, Jameson discovers it to be a more fluid, open-ended work. Hegel’s mind is revealed to be a less systematic mechanism than normally thought, one whose ideas never solidify into pure abstractions.
The conclusion of the Phenomenology, on the aftermath of the French Revolution, is examined as a provisional stalemate between the political and the social—a situation from which Jameson draws important lessons for our own age.
Hegel’s Science of Logic has received less attention than his Phenomenology of Spirit, but Hegel himself took it to be his highest philosophical achievement and the backbone of his system. The present book focuses on this most difficult of Hegel’s published works.
Béatrice Longuenesse offers a close analysis of core issues, including discussions of what Hegel means by ‘dialectical logic’, the role and meaning of ‘contradiction’ in Hegel’s philosophy, and Hegel’s justification for the provocative statement that ‘what is actual is rational, what is rational is actual’. She examines both Hegel’s debt and his polemical reaction to Kant, and shows in great detail how his project of a ‘dialectical’ logic can be understood only in light of its relation to Kant’s ‘transcendental’ logic.
This book will appeal to anyone interested in Hegel’s philosophy and its influence on contemporary philosophical discussion.
The 18th century German philosopher Immanuel Kant is widely considered as one the most important figures in modern philosophy. His fundamental arguments with regard to the fields of metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, and aesthetics, have been highly influential and form the basis for much of contemporary thought upon the subjects with which he was concerned. Kant believed that there were fundamental concepts that structured human experience, and that reason principally should guide one’s examination of these concepts.
Considered one of Kant’s most important works, Critique of Pure Reason is an exposition on humanity’s faculty for reason in general. First published in 1781, this work builds upon the works of Kant’s philosophical predecessors, notably the work of empiricists like John Locke and David Hume and of rationalists like Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. An enduringly influential work, Critique of Pure Reason remains to this day as one of the most important works of Western philosophy.
This website is being constructed purely as a hobby project and is designed, funded and run personally just by one individual. The project is set to be built for a longer period of time. It’s past incarnations (mariborchan.com, theoryleaks.org, etc.), were also at certain moments referenced by larger leftist publishers in the past, for instance the Slovene Mladina or the British Verso, and the hope is the site can be a reliable source of both older publications and recordings of theoretical interest that are still relevant today, as also a source of news about newer developments, with a few posts per day.
The idea is to provide quality material accessible to everyone online, while at the same time safeguarding the files in question, as they may disappear from other sources of the internet, as it happens throughout the years. Most of the material here is not exclusive and can be accessed at other popular online portals, but certain items are, and more of them should begin to appear in the future.
…but you can also at any time send me an e-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org if you want to support the site in a different way, like for example through a direct bank transfer, to contact me with a question or any other suggestion regarding the website or its content.
Most of the major schools of contemporary philosophy, from Marxism to Existentialism, are reactions to Hegelianism and all, if they are to be understood, require some understanding of Hegel’s Logic. From its first appearance in 1812, this work has been recognized by both admirers and detractors alike as being the absolute foundation of Hegel’s system.
Brilliant and innovative, Jacques Lacan’s work lies at the epicenter of modern thought about otherness, subjectivity, sexual difference, the drives, the law, and enjoyment. This new translation of his complete works offers welcome, readable access to Lacan’s seminal thinking on diverse subjects touched upon over the course of his inimitable intellectual career.
In recent years, techno-scientific progress has started to utterly transform our world – changing it almost beyond recognition. In this new work, philosopher Slavoj Žižek turns to look at the brave new world of Big Tech, revealing how, with each new wave of innovation, we find ourselves moving closer and closer to a bizarrely literal realisation of Marx’s prediction that ‘all that is solid melts into air.’
With the automation of work, the virtualisation of money, the dissipation of class communities and the rise of immaterial, intellectual labour, the global capitalist edifice is beginning to crumble, more quickly than ever before-and it is now on the verge of vanishing entirely. But what will come next?
Against a backdrop of constant socio-technological upheaval, how could any kind of authentic change take place? In such a context, Žižek argues, there can be no great social triumph—because lasting revolution has already come into the scene, like a thief in broad daylight, stealing into sight right before our ever eyes. What we must do now is wake up and see it.
Urgent as ever, Like a Thief in Broad Daylight illuminates the new dangers as well as the radical possibilities thrown up by today’s technological and scientific advances, and their electrifying implications for us all.
Pocket Pantheon is an invitation to engage with the greats of postwar Western thought, such as Lacan, Sartre and Foucault, in the company of one of today’s leading political and philosophical minds. Alain Badiou draws on his encounters with this pantheon—his teachers, opponents and allies—to offer unique insights into both the authors and their work. These studies form an accessible, authoritative distillation of continental theory and a capsule history of a period in Western thought.
Agon Hamza offers an in-depth analysis of the main thesis of Louis Althusser’s philosophical enterprise alongside a clear, engaging dissection of Pier Paolo Pasolini’s most important films.
There is a philosophical, religious, and political relationship between Althusser’s philosophy and Pier Paolo Pasolini’s films. Hamza teases out the points of contact, placing specific focus on critiques of ideology, religion, ideological state apparatuses, and the class struggle. The discussion, however, does not address Althusser and Pasolini alone. Hamza also draws on Spinoza, Hegel, Marx, and Žižek to complete his study. Pasolini’s films are a treasure-trove of Althusserian thought, and Hamza ably employs Althusserian terms in his reading of the films.
Althusser and Pasolini provides a creative reconstruction of Althusserian philosophy, as well as a novel examination of Pasolini’s film from the perspective of the filmmaker’s own thought and Althusser’s theses.
In attempting to answer the question posed by this book’s title, Giorgio Agamben does not address the idea of philosophy itself. Rather, he turns to the apparently most insignificant of its components: the phonemes, letters, syllables, and words that come together to make up the phrases and ideas of philosophical discourse. A summa, of sorts, of Agamben’s thought, the book consists of five essays on five emblematic topics: the Voice, the Sayable, the Demand, the Proem, and the Muse. In keeping with the author’s trademark methodology, each essay weaves together archaeological and theoretical investigations: to a patient reconstruction of how the concept of language was invented there corresponds an attempt to restore thought to its place within the voice; to an unusual interpretation of the Platonic Idea corresponds a lucid analysis of the relationship between philosophy and science, and of the crisis that both are undergoing today. In the end, there is no universal answer to what is an impossible or inexhaustible question, and philosophical writing—a problem Agamben has never ceased to grapple with—assumes the form of a prelude to a work that must remain unwritten.
Freud began university intending to study both medicine and philosophy. But he was ambivalent about philosophy, regarding it as metaphysical, too limited to the conscious mind, and ignorant of empirical knowledge. Yet his private correspondence and his writings on culture and history reveal that he never forsook his original philosophical ambitions. Indeed, while Freud remained firmly committed to positivist ideals, his thought was permeated with other aspects of German philosophy. Placed in dialogue with his intellectual contemporaries, Freud appears as a reluctant philosopher who failed to recognize his own metaphysical commitments, thereby crippling the defense of his theory and misrepresenting his true achievement. Recasting Freud as an inspired humanist and reconceiving psychoanalysis as a form of moral inquiry, Alfred Tauber argues that Freudianism still offers a rich approach to self-inquiry, one that reaffirms the enduring task of philosophy and many of the abiding ethical values of Western civilization.
This interview endeavors to understand Slavoj Žižek’s philosophical theses on dialectical materialism from the point of view of aleatory materialism. The contents of the interview are philosophically based, despite detours through varied topics such as politics, ecology, and communism.
Žižek asserts Hegel’s philosophical materialism, which has been overlooked by philosophers in general. Through dialectical retroactivity, Žižek maintains that we have finally found a nonteleological dialectics that is not external to Hegel but is found within his philosophy. Žižek offers concrete examples to complex categories such as absolute recoil, which he defines as the cause being “an effect of its effects.” In addition, he presents what he sees as the deficiency in Althusser’s aleatory materialism, that it represents, in his opinion, a simplistic interpretation of Hegel.
Žižek believes that Hegel is the only true materialist alternative to Marx, who never managed to free himself from a teleological view of communism.
This book is one of the most important recent books on Hegel, a philosopher who has had a crucial impact on the shape of continental philosophy. Published here in English, it includes a substantial preface by Jacques Derrida in which he explores the themes and conclusions of Malabou’s book.
The Future of Hegel: Plasticity, Temporality and Dialectic restores Hegel’s rich and complex concepts of time and temporality to contemporary philosophy. It examines his concept of time, relating it to perennial topics in philosophy such as substance, accident and the identity of the subject. Catherine Malabou’s also contrasts her account of Hegelian temporality with the interpretation given by Heidegger in Being and Time, arguing that it is the concept of ‘plasticity’ that best describes Hegel’s theory of temporality. The future is understood not simply as a moment in time, but as something malleable and constantly open to change through our interpretation.
The book also develops Hegel’s preoccupation with the history of Greek thought and Christianity and explores the role of theology in his thought.
Essential reading for those interested in Hegel and contemporary continental philosophy, The Future of Hegel is also fascinating to those interested in the ideas of Heidegger and Derrida.
This book describes how Freud attempted to chart hysteria, yet came to a standstill at the problem of woman and her desire, and of how Lacan continued along this road by creating new conceptual tools. The difficulties and upsets encountered by both men are examined.
This lucid presentation of the dialectical process that carries Lacan through the evolution of Freud’s thought offers profound insights into the place of the “feminine mystique” in our social fabric. Patiently and carefully, Verhaeghe applies the Lacanian grid to Freud’s text and succeeds in explaining Lacan’s formulations without merely recapitulating his theories. The reader is informed, along the way, not only of Lacan’s take on Freudian ideas, but also of the array of interpretations emerging from other trends in post-Freudian literature, including feminist revisionism.
“A miraculous answer to the confusions surrounding Freud’s and Lacan’s theory of feminine sexuality. . . . A must for anyone who wants to grasp what psychoanalysis has to say today.”
Nation and Aesthetics is a unique attempt to examine the ambiguous nature of nationalism and nation by examining them through aesthetics. In this translation by Jonathan E. Abel, Darwin H. Tsen, and Hiroki Yoshikuni, Karatani grasps the modern social formation as a nexus of three different “modes of exchange”, namely capital-nation-state. Nation here plays the role of complementing capitalism and the state. Benedict Anderson defined nation as an “imagined community”. Through rethinking Kant, Karatani suggests that “imagination” here is not a mere fancy, but very real, in the sense that it mediates state and capital. Usually imagination is regarded as fancying what is not present here. Kant grasped imagination as a faculty to imagine what we can understand but cannot sense; that is, to say, a faculty to mediate reason and sensibility. This observation provided the foundation to Modern aesthetics, which in the course of time became an important source of nationalism. In Italy, Germany, and Japan, nationalism appeared as fascism. They found in aesthetics a moment to go beyond capitalism and the state.
The key to go beyond nation, Karatani argues, lies also in the thoughts of Kant, a cosmopolitan and an advocate of a world republic. It is well-known that the League of Nations was formed after First World War under the influence of his “Perpetual Peace”. Karatani draws attention to the overlooked fact that around the same time Freud made a radical revision of his notion of the “superego”. Karatani introduces article nine of Japan’s postwar constitution, which renounces the right to wage war, as a crystallization of Kant’s ideal of peace and Freud’s superego. By providing a unique explanation of, and ways to counter, current nationalistic and imperialistic tendencies, Nation and Aesthetics argues that theories of Kant and Freud, which are usually understood to contrast, are deeply linked and suggest ways to go beyond capital-nation-state.
An extraordinary collection of thematically linked essays, including The Uncanny, Screen Memories and Family Romances.
Leonardo da Vinci fascinated Freud primarily because he was keen to know why his personality was so incomprehensible to his contemporaries. In this probing biographical essay he deconstructs both da Vinci’s character and the nature of his genius. As ever, many of his exploratory avenues lead to the subject’s sexuality – why did da Vinci depict the naked human body the way he did? What of his tendency to surround himself with handsome young boys that he took on as his pupils? Intriguing, thought-provoking and often contentious, this volume contains some of Freud’s best writing.
Jonathan Lear clearly introduces and assesses all of Freud’s thought, focusing on those areas of philosophy on which Freud is acknowledged to have had a lasting impact. These include the philosophy of mind, free will and determinism, rationality, the nature of the self and subjectivity, and ethics and religion. He also considers some of the deeper issues and problems Freud engaged with, brilliantly illustrating their philosophical significance: human sexuality, the unconscious, dreams, and the theory of transference.
One of the most important introductions and contributions to understanding this great thinker to have been published for many years, Freud will be essential reading for anyone in the humanities, social sciences and beyond with an interest in Freud or philosophy.
“If I were to answer the question: who, among contemporary psychoanalysts, is best qualified to write an introduction to Freud as a philosopher, my choice would be: Jonathan Lear.”
— Slavoj Žižek, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia
Jonathan Lear is the Roman Family Director of the Neubauer Collegium for Culture and Society at the University of Chicago, USA. He is also the John U. Nef Distinguished Service Professor in the Committee on Social Thought and the Department of Philosophy. He is a trained psychoanalyst, and the author of several acclaimed books on philosophy and psychoanalysis, including Aristotle: The Desire to Understand; Love and Its Place in Nature; Open Minded; Happiness, Death and the Remainder of Life,Radical Hope: Ethics in the Face of Cultural Devastation and A Case for Irony (2011). He is a recipient of the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Distinguished Achievement Award.
The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud is a complete edition of the works of Sigmund Freud. It was translated from the German under the general editorship of James Strachey, in collaboration with Anna Freud, assisted by Alix Strachey and Alan Tyson. The Standard Edition (usually abbreviated as SE) consists of 24 volumes, and it was originally published by the Hogarth Press in London in 1953–1974. Unlike the German Gesammelte Werke, the SE contains critical footnotes by the editors. This editorial material has later been included in the German-language Studienausgabe edition of Freud.
Please note that The Standard Edition of Freud’s works in English confuses two terms that are different in German, Instinkt (“instinct”) and Trieb (“drive”), often translating both as instinct; for example, “the hypothesis of a death instinct, the task of which is to lead organic life back into the inanimate state”. This equating of instinkt and Trieb has created serious misunderstandings.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia, Austrian Empire (now the Czech Republic). Between the ages of four and eighty-two his home was in Vienna; in 1938 Hitler’s invasion of Austria forced him to seek asylum in London, where he died in the following year. His career began with several years of brilliant work on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. He was almost thirty when, after a period of study under Charcot in Paris, his interests first turned to psychology, and another ten years of clinical work in Vienna (at first in collaboration with Breuer, an older colleague) saw the birth of his creation, psychoanalysis. This began simply as a method of treating neurotic patients by investigating their minds, but it quickly grew into an accumulation of knowledge about the workings of the mind in general, whether sick or healthy. Freud was thus able to demonstrate the normal development of the sexual instinct in childhood and, largely on the basis of an examination of dreams, arrived at his fundamental discovery of the unconscious forces that influence our everyday thoughts and actions. Freud’s life was uneventful, but his ideas have shaped not only many specialist disciplines, but the whole intellectual climate of the last half century.
Table of Contents
Vol. I Pre-Psycho-Analytic Publications and Unpublished Drafts (1886–1899).
Vol. II Studies in Hysteria (1893–1895). By Josef Breuer and S. Freud.
Vol. III Early Psycho-Analytic Publications (1893–1899)
Vol. IV The Interpretation of Dreams (I) (1900)
Vol. V The Interpretation of Dreams (II) and On Dreams (1900–1901)
Vol. VI The Psychopathology of Everyday Life (1901)
Vol. VII A Case of Hysteria, Three Essays on Sexuality and Other Works (1901–1905)
Vol. VIII Jokes and their Relation to the Unconscious (1905)
Vol. IX Jensen’s ‘Gradiva,’ and Other Works (1906–1909)
Vol. X The Cases of ‘Little Hans’ and the Rat Man’ (1909)
Vol. XI Five Lectures on Psycho-Analysis, Leonardo and Other Works (1910)
Vol. XII The Case of Schreber, Papers on Technique and Other Works (1911–1913)
Vol. XIII Totem and Taboo and Other Works (1913–1914)
Vol. XIV On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement, Papers on Meta-psychology and Other Works (1914–1916)
Vol. XV Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (Parts I and II) (1915–1916)
Vol. XVI Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (Part III) (1916–1917)
Vol. XVII An Infantile Neurosis and Other Works (1917–1919)
Vol. XVIII Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Group Psychology and Other Works (1920–1922)
Vol. XIX The Ego and the Id and Other Works (1923–1925)
Vol. XX An Autobiographical Study, Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Lay Analysis and Other Works (1925–1926)
Vol. XXI The Future of an Illusion, Civilization and its Discontents and Other Works (1927–1931)
Vol. XXII New Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis and Other Works (1932–1936)
Vol. XXIII Moses and Monotheism, An Outline of Psycho-Analysis and Other Works (1937–1939)
Vol. XXIV Indexes and Bibliographies (Compiled by Angela Richards,1974)
Freud’s Interpretation of Dreams (Die Traumdeutung) was published in November 1899, though postdated by the publisher to 1900. It explores why we dream and why dreams matter in our psychological lives. Delving into theories of manifest and latent dream content, the special work of dreams, dreams as wish fulfillments, and much more, Freud offers an incisive and enduringly relevant examination of dream psychology. Encompassing dozens of case histories and detailed analyses of actual dreams, this landmark work grants us unique insight into our sleeping experiences.
Its muted but respectful reception by reviewers disappointed Freud’s hopes and led him to complain unjustly that it had been ignored. For Freud, it was and remained the central book of his prolific career. In 1932 he wrote, in the preface to the third English edition: “It contains, even according to my present-day judgement, the most valuable of all the discoveries it has been my good fortune to make. Insight such as this falls to one’s lot but once in a lifetime”.
In Freud’s view we are driven by the desire for pleasure, as well as by the desire to avoid pain. But the pursuit of pleasure has never been a simple thing. Pleasure can be a form of fear, a form of memory and a way of avoiding reality. Above all, as these essays show with remarkable eloquence, pleasure is a way in which we repeat ourselves.
The essays collected in this volume explore, in Freud’s uniquely subtle and accessible style, the puzzles of pleasure and morality and the enigmas of human development.
On the Introduction of Narcissism
Remembering, Repeating and Working Through
Beyond the Pleasure Principle
The Ego and the Id
Inhibition, Symptom and Fear
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 in Moravia; from 1860 until Hitler’s invasion of Austria in 1938 he lived in Vienna. He was then forced to seek asylum in London, where he died the following year. He began his career as a doctor, specialising in work on the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system. He was almost thirty when his interests first turned to psychology, and during ten years of clinical work in Vienna he developed the practice of what he called ‘psychoanalysis’. This began simply as a method of treating neurotic patients by investigating their minds, but it quickly grew into an investigation of the workings of the mind in general, both ill or healthy. Freud demonstrated the normal development of the sexual instinct in childhood and, largely on the basis of an examination of dreams, arrived at his fundamental discovery of the unconscious forces that influence our everyday thoughts and actions. Freud’s ideas have shaped not only many specialist disciplines, but have also influenced the entire intellectual climate of the last century.
Giorgio Agamben’s Homo Sacer is one of the seminal works of political philosophy in recent decades. A twenty-year undertaking, this project is a series of interconnected investigations of staggering ambition and scope investigating the deepest foundations of every major Western institution and discourse.
This single book brings together for the first time all nine volumes that make up this groundbreaking project. Each volume takes a seemingly obscure and outdated issue as its starting point—an enigmatic figure in Roman law, or medieval debates about God’s management of creation, or theories about the origin of the oath—but is always guided by questions with urgent contemporary relevance.
Giorgio Agamben is a contemporary Italian philosopher and political theorist whose works have been translated into numerous languages.
I. HOMO SACER: Sovereign Power and Bare Life Contents Introduction
PART ONE: THE LOGIC OF SOVEREIGNTY 1. The Paradox of Sovereignty 2. ‘Nomos Basileus’ 3. Potentiality and Law 4. Form of Law Threshold
PART TWO: HOMO SACER 1. Homo Sacer 2. The Ambivalence of the Sacred 3. Sacred Life 4. ‘Vitae Necisque Potestas’ 5. Sovereign Body and Sacred Body 6. The Ban and the Wolf Threshold
PART THREE: THE CAMP AS BIOPOLITICAL PARADIGM OF THE MODERN 1. The Politicization of Life 2. Biopolitics and the Rights of Man 3. Life That Does Not Deserve to Live 4. ‘Politics, or Giving Form to the Life of a People’ 5. VP 6. Politicizing Death 7. The Camp as the ‘Nomos’ of the Modern Threshold Bibliography
II, 1. STATE OF EXCEPTION Contents Translator’s Note 1. The State of Exception as a Paradigm of Government 2. Force-of-Law 3. Iustitium 4. Gigantomachy Concerning a Void 5. Feast, Mourning, Anomie 6. Auctoritas and Potestas Bibliography
II, 2. STASIS: Civil War as a Political Paradigm Contents Foreword 1. Stasis 2. Leviathan and Behemoth Bibliography
II, 3. THE SACRAMENT OF LANGUAGE: An Archaeology of the Oath Contents Translator’s Note Abbreviations The Sacrament of Language Bibliography
II, 4. THE KINGDOM AND THE GLORY: For a Theological Genealogy of Economy and Government Contents Translator’s Note Preface 1. The Two Paradigms Threshold 2. The Mystery of the Economy Threshold 3. Being and Acting Threshold 4. The Kingdom and the Government Threshold 5. The Providential Machine Threshold 6. Angelology and Bureaucracy Threshold 7. The Power and the Glory Threshold 8. The Archaeology of Glory Threshold Appendix: The Economy of the Moderns 1. The Law and the Miracle 2. The Invisible Hand Bibliography
II, 5. OPUS DEI: An Archaeology of Duty Contents Translator’s Note Preface 1. Liturgy and Politics Threshold 2. From Mystery to Effect Threshold 3. A Genealogy of Office Threshold 4. The Two Ontologies; or, How Duty Entered into Ethics Threshold Bibliography
III. REMNANTS OF AUSCHWITZ: The Witness and the Archive Contents Preface 1. The Witness 2. The Muselmann 3. Shame, or On the Subject 4. The Archive and Testimony Bibliography
IV, 1. THE HIGHEST POVERTY: Monastic Rules and Form-of-Life Contents Translator’s Note Preface
PART ONE: RULE AND LIFE 1. Birth of the Rule 2. Rule and Law 3. Flight from the World and Constitution Threshold
PART TWO: LITURGY AND RULE 1. Regula Vitae 2. Orality and Writing 3. The Rule as a Liturgical Text Threshold
PART THREE: FORM-OF-LIFE 1. The Discovery of Life 2. Renouncing Law 3. Highest Poverty and Use Threshold Bibliography
IV, 2. THE USE OF BODIES Contents Translator’s Note Prefatory Note Prologue
PART ONE: THE USE OF BODIES 1. The Human Being without Work 2. Chresis 3. Use and Care 4. The Use of the World 5. Use-of-Oneself 6. Habitual Use 7. The Animate Instrument and Technology 8. The Inappropriable Intermezzo I
PART TWO: AN ARCHEOLOGY OF ONTOLOGY 1. Ontological Apparatus 2. Theory of Hypostases 3. Toward a Modal Ontology Intermezzo II
III. FORM-OF-LIFE 1. Life Divided 2. A Life Inseparable from Its Form 3. Living Contemplation 4. Life Is a Form Generated by Living 5. Toward an Ontology of Style 6. Exile of One Alone with One Alone 7. “That’s How We Do It” 8. Work and Inoperativity 9. The Myth of Er Epilogue: Toward a Theory of Destituent Potential Bibliography Index
The book brings together texts by authors such as Giorgio Agamben, Slavoj Žižek, Judith Butler, María Galindo and Byung-Chul Han, among others.
In a compilation of writings published between February 26 and March 28 by thinkers from all over the world, the Argentine professor Pablo Amadeo seeks that the title Wuhan Soup reflects “recent controversies around the scenarios that open up with the coronavirus pandemic, views on the present and hypotheses about the future ”.
The first writing found in the publication – open access – is “The invention of an epidemic”, by the Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben. In this text the author explains that in the face of the impact of the coronavirus raised by the National Research Council of Italy, which establishes that between 80 and 90 percent of cases present mild symptoms, there are two possible explanations for the media and authorities spread a state of panic.
Agamben argues that one of the reasons is that “having exhausted terrorism as the cause of exceptional measures, the invention of an epidemic may offer the ideal pretext to extend them beyond all limits”; while the other reason is “the real need for states of collective panic” on the part of society; “Thus, in a perverse vicious circle, the limitation of freedom imposed by governments is accepted in the name of a desire for security that has been induced by the same governments that now intervene to satisfy it.”
In contrast and in response to the previous text, Jean-Luc Nancy exposes in “Viral Exception” that “Giorgio says that governments take all kinds of pretexts to establish continuous states of exception. But he does not realize that the exception becomes, in reality, the rule in a world in which the technical interconnections of all species (movements, transfers of all kinds, exposure or diffusion of substances, etc.) reach a hitherto unknown intensity and that grows with the population ”.
In “Coronavirus is a Kill Bill-style capitalist coup,” Slovenian Slavoj Žižek poses an analogy in which the fall of the Chinese Communist government, caused by the COVID-19 crisis, is akin to the attack of the “Technique of Exploiting Heart of the Five Point Palm ”, used in the final scene of the movie Kill Bill. This technique is characterized by the time that elapses between the end of the attack and the death of the victim, which results in a comparison of the time in quarantine that China has spent, in which “the authorities can sit, observe and pass through the movements, but any real change in the social order (like trusting people) will result in their downfall. ”
However, for the sociologist, capitalism represents not so much an attack on the Chinese communist system, but rather on capitalism in general, “a sign that we cannot follow the path hitherto, that radical change is necessary.” In addition to this, the thinker maintains that as he has been portrayed in various catastrophic utopias that give way to solidarity, “here we are today, in real life”.
He adds that “the coronavirus increasingly disrupts the proper functioning of the world market and, as we hear, growth may fall by one, two or three percent”, while wondering if “does all this not clearly indicate the need urgent of a reorganization of the global economy that will no longer be at the mercy of market mechanisms? ”
Chaos, discrimination and dictatorship
Judith Butler, in “Capitalism Has Its Limits,” begins by stating that the coronavirus does not discriminate; however, he alludes to Donald Trump’s offer to try to buy, in Germany, the exclusive rights to a vaccine, and ends by stating that “social and economic inequality will ensure that the virus discriminates. The virus alone does not discriminate, but humans surely do, shaped as we are by the interlocking powers of nationalism, racism, xenophobia and capitalism.”
On the other hand, the Uruguayan Raúl Zibechi writes in “At the gates of a new world order”, that “we enter a period of chaos in the world-system, which is the precondition for the formation of a new global order”. He maintains that the leadership of the United States and Europe is transferred to Asia; “The pandemic is the grave of neoliberal globalization, while the pandemic of the future will be a ‘kinder’ globalization, focused on China and Asia Pacific.”
Bolivian activist María Galindo affirms in “Disobedience, because of you I am going to survive”, that “the coronavirus, more than a disease, seems to be a form of multi-governmental world police and military dictatorship.” He points out that in addition to the fear of contagion, the coronavirus also turns out to be “an instrument that seems effective to erase, minimize, hide or put in parentheses other social and political problems that we have been conceptualizing.
In this same sense, the author claims that in this context of illness, millions of euros of bailout of her colonial economies appear to settle rents, utility bills, salaries, when all that proletarian mass was cutting the sky, saying that there was no where to pay the social debt.
Finally, and regarding the arrival of the disease in Latin American countries such as Bolivia, he declares that dengue and coronavirus greeted each other, tuberculosis and cancer were on one side, which in this part of the world are death sentences, since in that Instead what is done is to repeat and copy the European measures, but without having the same resources.
Alain Badiou is arguably the most significant philosopher in Europe today. Badiou’s seminars, given annually on major conceptual and historical topics, constitute an enormously important part of his work. They served as laboratories for his thought and public illuminations of his complex ideas yet remain little known. This book, the transcript of Badiou’s year-long seminar on the psychoanalytic theory of Jacques Lacan, is the first volume of his seminars to be published in English, opening up a new and vital aspect of his thinking.
In a highly original and compelling account of Lacan’s theory and therapeutic practice, Badiou considers the challenge that Lacan poses to fundamental philosophical topics such as being, the subject, and truth. Badiou argues that Lacan is a singular figure of the “anti-philosopher,” a series of thinkers stretching back to Saint Paul and including Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, with Lacan as the last great anti-philosopher of modernity. The book offers a forceful reading of an enigmatic yet foundational thinker and sheds light on the crucial role that Lacan plays in Badiou’s own thought. This seminar, more accessible than some of Badiou’s more difficult works, will be profoundly valuable for the many readers across academic disciplines, art and literature, and political activism who find his thought essential.
Two controversial thinkers discuss a timeless but nonetheless urgent question: should philosophy interfere in the world?
Nothing less than philosophy is at stake because, according to Badiou, philosophy is nothing but interference and commitment and will not be restrained by academic discipline. Philosophy is strange and new, and yet speaks in the name of all – as Badiou shows with his theory of universality.
Similarly, Žižek believes that the philosopher must intervene, contrary to all expectations, in the key issues of the time. He can offer no direction, but this only shows that the question has been posed incorrectly: it is valid to change the terms of the debate and settle on philosophy as abnormality and excess.
At once an invitation to philosophy and an introduction to the thinking of two of the most topical and controversial philosophers writing today, this concise volume will be of great interest to students and general readers alike.
Delumeau’s work is a sort of tour de force through the Museum of Spiritual History, wherein one can see “more than 600 years of guilt-instilling efforts.” “My book must therefore not be taken either as a refusal of guilt or the need for a consciousness of sin. On the contrary, I think it will shed light on the excessive sense of guilt and ‘culpabilization’ … that has characterized Western history.”
This extraordinary fresco draws the evolution of a pessimistic and punitive attitude regarding earthly life, which spread throughout Europe between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. Delumeau sees its origins in the ascetic ideals, in the “contemptus mundi” [“scorn of the world”], in the gloomy sense of sin and human frailty which, from the medieval monastic environment, widened in society thanks to what the author calls a “pastoral of fear”, that is, a pervasive pedagogy carried out by the sermons, the books of edification, the macabre iconography; a pedagogy of the rest parallel to the terrifying series of calamities and horrors of war that punctuated and terrified those centuries, and they had to appear as many punishments in search of a fault.
Introduction: A Cultural History of Sin
PART ONE: PESSIMISM AND THE MACABRE IN THE RENAISSANCE
1. Contempt for the World and Mankind An Old Theme The Reasons Behind “Contempt for the World” A Constantly Recurring Theme in the Fourteenth to Sixteenth Centuries The Mystics’ Version A Philosophy for all Christians Justification by Faith and the Need for Despair Along the Borders of the Protestant World: A Return to Otherworldliness
2. From Contempt for the World to the “Danse Macabre” “Familiarity” with Death The Components of the Macabre The Longevity of the Monastic Concept of Death Death and Conversion The Legend of the Three Living and the Three Dead The Danse of Death and the Danse Macabre
3. Ambiguity of the Macabre The Danse Macabre: A Sermon The Macabre and the Resurrection The Macabre and the Misfortunes of the Age The Macabre and Violence Diverging Significations
4. A Sinful World “An Age of Tears, Anguish, and Torment” (Eustache Deschamps) The Dream of the Golden Age World Upside Down, Perverse World Proliferation of the Monstrous Wickedness
5. Fragile Humanity The Disappearance of Reason Fate Melancholy
PART TWO: A FAILURE OF REDEMPTION?
6. Focusing the Examination of Conscience A Theology of Sin The Penitential Regimes Confessors’ Handbooks and Confession Manuals Sin in Lay Literature
7. The Realm of the Confessor Envy Lust Usury and Avarice Sloth The Iconography of Sin
8. Original Sin Original Sin at the Heart of a Culture The Origin of Evil and the Earthly Paradise The Authority of Saint Augustine Against Attenuated Guilt Original Sin and Opinions on Childhood Sanctuaries of Resuscitation: “A Vain Tenderness” ?
9. The Mass of Perdition and the System of Sin “Many Are Called But Few Are Chosen” Criminal Man and Terrible God A Collective Guilt Complex
10. Religious “Uneasiness” The Doctrine of Pain The Disease of Scruple The Difficulty of Death
PART THREE: AN EVANGELISM OF FEAR IN THE CATHOLIC WORLD
11. The Diffusion of a Religious Doctrine From Conviction to Tactics The Documents
12. “Think on It Well” The “Preparations for Death” Sermons and Hymns
13. The Tortures of the Afterlife Hell Purgatory, or Temporary Hell Toward the Infernal Temporary Hell in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
14. A “Lynx-eyed” God Judgment or Vengeance The Limits of Divine Benevolence
15. Sin and Sins Deadly and Venial Sin The Classification of Sins “Avarice” Marriage, a “Dangerous” Situation Impurity
16. The Ascetic Model “Nothing so Pleases God as a Thin Body” The Rejection of Amusement
17. The Difficulty of Obligatory Confession Sacrilegious Confessions Sacrilegious Confessions and Shameful Communions
18. The Catholic Doctrinal Campaign: An Attempt at Quantification
PART FOUR: IN THE PROTESTANT WORLD
19. ‘You Are a Terrifying Word, Eternity” Must One Instill Fear? Theology and Pedagogy
20. Shared Aspects of the Protestant and Catholic Doctrinal Programs The Emphasis on Death Other Last Ends and the Contemptus Mundi
21. Eschatology and Predestination The End Is Near Predestination and Election Fear of Reprobation
This sweeping exploration of the impact of epidemic diseases looks at how mass infectious outbreaks have shaped society, from the Black Death to today. In a clear and accessible style, Frank M. Snowden reveals the ways that diseases have not only influenced medical science and public health, but also transformed the arts, religion, intellectual history, and warfare.
A multidisciplinary and comparative investigation of the medical and social history of the major epidemics, this volume touches on themes such as the evolution of medical therapy, plague literature, poverty, the environment, and mass hysteria. In addition to providing historical perspective on diseases such as smallpox, cholera, and tuberculosis, Snowden examines the fallout from recent epidemics such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and Ebola and the question of the world’s preparedness for the next generation of diseases.
Frank M. Snowden is Andrew Downey Orrick Professor Emeritus of History and History of Medicine at Yale University. His previous books include The Conquest of Malaria: Italy, 1900–1962 and Naples in the Time of Cholera, 1884–1911.
Humoral Medicine: The Legacy of Hippocrates and Galen
Overview of the Three Plague Pandemics: 541 to ca. 1950
Plague as a Disease
Responses to Plague
Smallpox before Edward Jenner
The Historical Impact of Smallpox
War and Disease: Napoleon, Yellow Fever, and the Haitian Revolution
War and Disease: Napoleon, Dysentery, and Typhus in Russia, 1812
The Paris School of Medicine
The Sanitary Movement
The Germ Theory of Disease
Tuberculosis in the Romantic Era of Consumption
Tuberculosis in the Unromantic Era of Contagion
The Third Plague Pandemic: Hong Kong and Bombay
Malaria and Sardinia: Uses and Abuses of History
Polio and the Problem of Eradication
HIV/AIDS: An Introduction and the Case of South Africa
HIV/AIDS: The Experience of the United States
Emerging and Reemerging Diseases
Dress Rehearsals for the Twenty-First Century: SARS and Ebola
We live in a moment when the greatest act of love is to stay distant from the object of your affection. When governments renowned for ruthless cuts in public spending can suddenly conjure up trillions. When toilet paper becomes a commodity as precious as diamonds. And when, according to Žižek, a new form of communism may be the only way of averting a descent into global barbarism.
Written with his customary brio and love of analogies in popular culture (Quentin Tarantino and H.G. Wells sit next to Hegel and Marx in these pages), Žižek provides a concise and provocative snapshot of the crisis as it widens, engulfing us all.
Introduction: Noli Me Tangere 1. We’re All in the Same Boat Now 2. Why Are We Tired All the Time? 3. Towards A Perfect Storm in Europe 4. Welcome to the Viral Desert 5. The Five Stages of Epidemics 6. The Virus of Ideology 7. Calm Down and Panic! 8. Monitor and Punish? Yes, Please! 9. Is Barbarism With a Human Face Our Fate? 10. Communism or Barbarism, as Simple as That! Appendix: Two Helpful Letters from Friends