Lenin Reloaded: Toward a Politics of Truth [SIC 7]

Published by Duke University Press in 2007. Download link updated on 26th July 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

Lenin Reloaded is a rallying call by some of the world’s leading Marxist intellectuals for renewed attention to the significance of Vladimir Lenin. The volume’s editors explain that it was Lenin who made Karl Marx’s thought explicitly political, who extended it beyond the confines of Europe, who put it into practice. They contend that a focus on Lenin is urgently needed now, when global capitalism appears to be the only game in town, the liberal-democratic system seems to have been settled on as the optimal political organization of society, and it has become easier to imagine the end of the world than a modest change in the mode of production. Lenin retooled Marx’s thought for specific historical conditions in 1914, and Lenin Reloaded urges a reinvention of the revolutionary project for the present. Such a project would be Leninist in its commitment to action based on truth and its acceptance of the consequences that follow from action.

These essays bring Lenin face-to-face with the problems of today, including war, imperialism, the imperative to build an intelligentsia of wage earners, the need to embrace the achievements of bourgeois society and modernity, and the widespread failure of social democracy. Lenin Reloaded demonstrates that truth and partisanship are not mutually exclusive as is often suggested. Quite the opposite—in the present, truth can be articulated only from a thoroughly partisan position.

Contributors: Kevin B. Anderson, Alain Badiou, Etienne Balibar, Daniel Bensaïd, Sebastian Budgen, Alex Callinicos, Terry Eagleton, Fredric Jameson, Stathis Kouvelakis, Georges Labica, Sylvain Lazarus, Jean-Jacques Lecercle, Lars T. Lih, Domenico Losurdo, Savas Michael-Matsas, Antonio Negri, Alan Shandro, Slavoj Žižek

‘Revolution at the Gates: A Selection of Writings from February to October 1917’ by V. I. Lenin & edited by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Verso in 2002. Download link updated on 19th January 2022.

(.pdf & .epub)

Today marks the anniversary of the Russian Revolution of 1917, when the working class of Russia, organized through soviets and led by the Bolsheviks, made history by taking power.

The idea of a Lenin renaissance might well provoke an outburst of sarcastic laughter. Marx is OK, but Lenin? Doesn’t he stand for the big catastrophe which left its mark on the entire twentieth-century?

Lenin, however, deserves wider consideration than this, and his writings of 1917 are testament to a formidable political figure. They reveal his ability to grasp the significance of an extraordinary moment in history. Everything is here, from Lenin-the-ingenious-revolutionary-strategist to Lenin-of-the-enacted-utopia. To use Kierkegaard’s phrase, what we can glimpse in these writings is Lenin-in-becoming: not yet Lenin-the-Soviet-institution, but Lenin thrown into an open, contingent situation.

In Revolution at the Gates, Slavoj Žižek locates the 1917 writings in their historical context, while his afterword tackles the key question of whether Lenin can be reinvented in our era of “cultural capitalism.” Žižek is convinced that, whatever the discussion—the forthcoming crisis of capitalism, the possibility of a redemptive violence, the falsity of liberal tolerance—Lenin’s time has come again.

‘Beyond Satire: The Political Comedy of the Present and the Paradoxes of Authority’ by Aaron Schuster

A staging of The Balcony.


An extended reading of Jean Genet’s play The Balcony, arguing for its contemporary relevance, and highlighting two of its most historically significant readings–those of Jacques Lacan (on the nature of enjoyment and its relation to the symbolic order) and Lucien Goldmann (concerning the impact of modern capitalism on traditional structures of authority). Particular attention is given to Genet’s vehement argument against satire. The essay puts The Balcony into dialogue with other political comedies (Lubitsch and JG Ballard) and films in sketching a broader understanding of how the theatricality of authority works today.

‘Lacan: The Silent Partners’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published by Verso in 2006. Download link updated on 22th January 2022.


Jacques Lacan is the foremost psychoanalytic theorist after Freud. Revolutionising the study of social relations, his work has been a major influence on political theory, philosophy, literature and the arts, but his thought has so far been studied without a serious investigation of its foundations. Just what are the influences on his thinking, so crucial to its proper understanding?

In Lacan: The Silent Partners Slavoj Žižek, the maverick theorist and pre-eminent Lacan scholar, has marshalled some of the greatest thinkers of our age in support of a dazzling re-evaluation of Lacan’s work. Focussing on Lacan’s ‘silent partners’, those who are the hidden inspiration to Lacanian theory, they discuss his work in relation to the Pre-Socratics, Diderot, Hegel, Nietzsche, Schelling, Hölderlin, Wagner, Turgenev, Kafka, Henry James and Artaud.

‘The Puppet and the Dwarf: The Perverse Core of Christianity’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published by The MIT Press in 2003. Download link updated on 25. June 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

In The Puppet and the Dwarf Slavoj Žižek offers a close reading of today’s religious constellation from the viewpoint of Lacanian psychoanalysis. He critically confronts both predominant versions of today’s spirituality—New Age gnosticism and deconstructionist-Levinasian Judaism—and then tries to redeem the “materialist” kernel of Christianity. His reading of Christianity is explicitly political, discerning in the Pauline community of believers the first version of a revolutionary collective.

Since today even advocates of Enlightenment like Jurgen Habermas acknowledge that a religious vision is needed to ground our ethical and political stance in a “postsecular” age, this book—with a stance that is clearly materialist and at the same time indebted to the core of the Christian legacy—is certain to stir controversy.

‘Organs without Bodies: On Deleuze and Consequences’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published by Routledge in 2012. Download link updated on 26. June 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

With a new introduction by the author.

In this deliciously polemical work, a giant of cultural theory immerses himself in the ideas of a giant of French thought. In his inimical style, Žižek links Deleuze’s work with both Oedipus and Hegel, figures from whom the French philosopher distanced himself. Žižek turns some Deleuzian concepts around in order to explore the ‘organs without bodies’ in such films as Fight Club and the works of Hitchcock. Finally, he attacks what he sees as the ‘radical chic’ Deleuzians, arguing that such projects turn Deleuze into an ideologist of today’s ‘digital capitalism’. With his brilliant energy and fearless argumentation, Žižek sets out to restore a truer, more radical Deleuze than the one we thought we knew.

The Quarantine Tapes 124: Slavoj Žižek

Published online 4th April 2020.


Paul Holdengräber is joined by philosopher Slavoj Žižek on episode 124 of The Quarantine Tapes. Slavoj is in Slovenia and they discuss his experience of the pandemic there before diving into Slavoj’s analysis of this political and social moment. Slavoj and Paul talk about the response to the pandemic and what it will take to get out of it, Slavoj offers his thoughts on technology and language and what this crisis is revealing about long-standing restrictions to our privacy and freedom. He ends the episode with a story for his visit to Julian Assange prior to the pandemic and a reminder of what is at stake in that ongoing trial.

Slavoj Žižek, born in Ljubljana, Slovenia, in 1949, studied philosophy in Ljubljana and psychoanalysis in Paris. He is now Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana, and international director at the School of Law, Birkbeck College, University of London. He held courses at many US universities (Princeton, Columbia, NYU).

‘Where Is the Rift? Marx, Lacan, Capitalism, and Ecology’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published on 13th October 2020 in Res Publica. Revista de Historia de las Ideas Políticas


In this article it is proposed that the Hegelian dialectical matrix thus serves as the model of the logic of the capital as well as the model of its revolutionary overcoming. Therefore, the fundamental question arises: Which mode of relating to Hegel should an ecologically-oriented Marxism assume today? The Hegelian idealist speculation does not imply an absolute appropriation of nature–in contrast to productive appropriation, speculation lets its Other be, it doesn’t intervene into its Other.

‘Welcome to the Desert of the Real: Five Essays on September 11 and Related Dates’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published by Verso in 2002. Download link updated on 20. December 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

Probing beneath the level of TV punditry, Žižek offers a highly original and readable account that serves as a fascinating and insightful comprehension of the events of September 11.

Liberals and conservatives proclaim the end of the American holiday from history. Now the easy games are over; one should take sides. Žižek argues this is precisely the temptation to be resisted. In such moments of apparently clear choices, the real alternatives are most hidden. Welcome to the Desert of the Real steps back, complicating the choices imposed on us. It proposes that global capitalism is fundamentalist and that America was complicit in the rise of Muslim fundamentalism. It points to our dreaming about the catastrophe in numerous disaster movies before it happened, and explores the irony that the tragedy has been used to legitimize torture. Last but not least it analyzes the fiasco of the predominant leftist response to the events.

‘Opera’s Second Death’ by Slavoj Žižek & Mladen Dolar

Published by Routledge in 2001. Download link updated on 23. June 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

Opera’s Second Death is a passionate exploration of opera – the genre, its masterpieces, and the nature of death. Using a dazzling array of tools, Slavoj Žižek and coauthor Mladen Dolar explore the strange compulsions that overpower characters in Mozart and Wagner, as well as our own desires to die and to go to the opera.

Mladen Dolar is Professor and Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana since 1982 and has served as the Advising Researcher in Theory at the Jan Van Eyck Academie in Maastricht, Netherlands. He is also Professor of Philosophy at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. His principal areas of research are Psychoanalysis, Modern French Philosophy (Lacan, Foucault, Derrida, Badiou, et. al.), German Idealism, and Art Theory, especially Musicology. With Žižek and others, Dolar was the co-founder of the Ljubljana Society of Theoretical Psychoanalysis, whose main aim is to read late 18th cent. and early 19th cent. German Classical Philosophy through the frame of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory. His main field of expertise is the philosophy of Georg W. F. Hegel, on whom he has written several papers, including a two-volume interpretation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit first published in Slovene between 1990 and 1991. Dolar has lectured extensively across many different Universities in Europe and the United States and is author of hundreds of papers in different scholarly journals and in various collected volumes. Apart from over twelve monograph publications in Slovene, his books published in English most notably include A Voice and Nothing More and Opera’s Second Death, both of which were translated into several languages. His new book The Riskiest Moment is forthcoming with Duke University Press.

Slavoj Žižek is a Philosopher and Psychoanalytic social theorist. He is Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana; Professor at the School of Law and Director of the Institute for the Humanities at Birkbeck, University of London; Distinguished Scholar at the Kyung Hee University, Seoul; and Visiting Professor at the German Department, New York University. His field of work comprises Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, dialectical-materialist metaphysical interpretations of German Idealism and Marxian critique of ideology. His more than sixty books in English have been widely translated. His latest publications include Pandemic! & Pandemic! 2, Hegel in a Wired Brain, Sex and the Failed Absolute, Like A Thief In Broad DaylightReading MarxIncontinence of the Void, and The Day After the Revolution.

‘Conditions’ by Alain Badiou

Originally published in French by Editions du Seuil in 1992. This translation published by Continuum in 2008.

(.pdf & .epub)

Beginning with a sustained critique of the so-called ‘end of philosophy’, Badiou goes on to propose a new definition of philosophy, one that is tested with respect to both its origin, in Plato, and its contemporary state. The essays that follow are ordered according to what Badiou sees as the four great conditions of philosophy: philosophy and poetry, philosophy and mathematics, philosophy and politics, and philosophy and love. Conditions provides an illuminating reworking of all the major theories in Being and Event. In so doing, Badiou not only develops the complexity of the concepts central to Being and Event but also adds new ones to his already formidable arsenal. The essays in Conditions reveal the extraordinary and systematic nature of Badiou’s philosophical enterprise.

‘The Fright of Real Tears: Krzysztof Kieślowski Between Theory and Post-Theory’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published by British Film Institute in 2001. Download link updated on 19th January 2022.


In this major study Slavoj Žižek challenges both cognitivist-historicist accounts of cinema and conventional film theory. Arguing that the reading of Lacan operative in the ’70s and ’80s was particularly reductive, Žižek asserts that there is “another Lacan,” in reference to whom film theory, cultural studies, and critical thought as such can be transformed and revitalized. He supports and expands this argument with an extensive reading of the work of Kieslowski and, in a substantial appendix, with a discussion of the relationship between Christianity, Gothicism and the “progressive digitalisation of our life-world.”

‘On Belief’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Routledge in 2001. Download link updated on 19th January 2022.

(.pdf & .epub)

What is the basis of belief in an era when globalization, multiculturalism and big business in the new religion? Slavoj Žižek, renowned philosopher and irrepressible cultural critic, takes on all comers in this compelling and breathtaking book.

From “cyberspace reason” to the paradox that is “Western Buddhism,” On Belief gets behind the contours of the way we normally think about belief, in particular Judaism and Christianity. Holding up the so-called authenticity of religious belief to critical light, Žižek draws on psychoanalysis, film and philosophy to reveal in startling fashion that nothing could be worse for believers than their beliefs turning out to be true.

On Belief is essential reading for anyone interested in how we continue to hold beliefs in this postmodern age.

‘The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime: On David Lynch’s Lost Highway’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published in 2000 by University of Washington Press. Download link updated on 19th January 2022.


The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime is first of all the detailed reading of David Lynch’s The Lost Highway, based on the premises of Lacanian psychoanalysis. Lynch’s unique universe of the “ridiculous sublime” is interpreted as a simultaneous playful staging and traversing of the fundamental ideological fantasies that sustain our late capitalist society.

A master of reversals, Žižek invites the reader to reexamine with him easy assumptions, received opinion, and current critical trends, as well as pose tough questions about the ways in which we understand our world and culture. He offers provocative readings of Casablanca, Schindler’s List, and Life Is Beautiful in the process of examining topics as diverse–and as closely linked–as ethics, politics, and cyberspace.

The Collected Works of Slavoj Žižek

Slavoj Žižek in his flat in the center of Ljubljana. The photo is a reference to La Mort de Marat, a 1793 painting by Jacques-Louis David.

Slavoj Žižek is a Philosopher and Psychoanalytic social theorist. He is Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana; Professor at the School of Law and Director of the Institute for the Humanities at Birkbeck, University of London; Distinguished Scholar at the Kyung Hee University, Seoul; and Visiting Professor at the German Department, New York University. His field of work comprises Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, dialectical-materialist metaphysical interpretations of German Idealism and Marxian critique of ideology.

This post is still being updated.


1989, The Sublime Object of Ideology
1991, For They Know Not What They Do
1991, Looking Awry
1992, Enjoy Your Symptom!
1993, Tarrying With the Negative
1994, The Metastases of Enjoyment
1995, Mapping Ideology
1996, The Indivisible Remainder
1997, The Abyss of Freedom / Ages of the World
1997, The Plague of Fantasies
1998, The Specter Is Still Roaming Around!
1999, The Ticklish Subject
2000, The Art of the Ridiculous Sublime
2000, The Fragile Absolute
2000, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality
2001, Did Somebody Say Totalitarianism?
2001, On Belief
2001, The Fright of Real Tears
2001, Opera’s Second Death
2001, Repeating Lenin
2002, Welcome to the Desert of the Real
2002, Revolution at the Gates
2003, Organs Without Bodies
2003, The Puppet and the Dwarf
2004, Iraq: The Borrowed Kettle
2005, Interrogating the Real
2006, The Universal Exception
2006, Lacan: The Silent Partners
2006, The Parallax View
2006, How to Read Lacan
2006, The Neighbor
2007, ‘On Practice and Contradiction’ by Mao Tse-Tung
2007, ‘Terrorism and Communism’ by Leon Trotsky
2007, ‘Virtue and Terror’ by Maximilien Robespierre
2008, In Defense of Lost Causes
2008, Violence: Six Sideways Reflections
2009, First As Tragedy, Then As Farce
2009, Mythology, Madness and Laughter
2009, The Monstrosity of Christ
2010, Philosophy in the Present
2010, Living in the End Times
2010, Living in End of Times | Čas konca časa | 生于末世
2012, Less Than Nothing
2012, God in Pain: Inversions of Apocalypse
2012, The Year of Dreaming Dangerously
2013, What Does Europe Want?
2013, Demanding the Impossible
2013, From Myth To Symptom: the Case of Kosovo
2013, Is It Still Possible to Be a Hegelian Today?
2014, Comradely Greetings
2014, The Most Sublime Hysteric
2014, Event: Philosophy in Transit
2014, Absolute Recoil
2016, The Wagnerian Sublime
2015, Trouble in Paradise
2016, Against the Double Blackmail
2016, Disparities
2016, Antigone
2016, An American Utopia
2017, The Courage of Hopelessness
2017, ‘The Day After the Revolution’ by Vladimir I. Lenin
2017, Incontinence of the Void
2018, Reading Marx
2018, Like A Thief In Broad Daylight
2018, The Relevance of the Communist Manifesto
2019, Sex and the Failed Absolute
2020, A Left That Dares to Speak Its Name: 34 Untimely Interventions
2020, Hegel in a Wired Brain
2020, Pandemic! COVID-19 Shakes the World
2020, Pandemic! 2: Chronicles of a Time Lost
2021, Heaven in Disorder

Books in Other Languages

1982, Zgodovina in nezavedno
1994, ¡Goza tu síntoma!: Jacques Lacan dentro y fuera de Hollywood
2009, Paralaksa
2011, Après la tragédie, la farce ! : Comment l’histoire se répète
2012, Die Idee des Kommunismus I
2012, Die Idee des Kommunismus II
2015, Die Idee des Kommunismus III
2016, Absoluter Gegenstoß. Versuch einer Neubegründung des dialektischen Materialismus
2021, Chocolate sin grasa


1992, Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Lacan (But Were Afraid to Ask Hitchcock)
1994, The Making of Political Identities
2000, Jacques Ranciere: The Politics of Aesthetics
2001, Nietzsche: Revenge and Praise (Pli: The Warwick Journal of Philosophy)
2002, Georg Lukács: A Defence of History and Class Consciousness: Tailism and the Dialectic
2002, Lacan and Science
2002, Reading Seminar XX: Lacan’s Major Work on Love, Knowledge, and Feminine Sexuality
2004, Think Again: Alain Badiou and the Future of Philosophy
2004, Transcendence: Philosophy, Literature, and Theology Approach the Beyond
2004, Polygraph 15/16: Immanence, Transcendence, and Utopia
2004, Hitchcock: Past and Future
2005, Theology and the Political: The New Debate
2005, Time Driven: Metapsychology and the Splitting of the Drive
2007, Adventures in Realism
2007, Lenin Reloaded: Toward a Politics of Truth [SIC 7]
2009, Theories of Race and Racism: A Reader
2009, Cultures of Fear
2010, Paul’s New Moment: Continental Philosophy and the Future of Christian Theology
2010, Alain Badiou: Five Lessons on Wagner
2010, The Idea of Communism
2010, ‘Hvalnica ljubezni’, Alain Badiou & Slavoj Žižek
2010, The Speculative Turn: Continental Materialism and Realism
2011, The Chinese Perspective on Žižek and Žižek′s Perspective on China
2011, Occupy!: Scenes from Occupied America
2011, Hegel and the Infinite: Religion, Politics, and Dialectic
2011, Democracy in What State?
2011, What Does a Jew Want? On Binationalism and Other Specters
2012, The Case for Sanctions Against Israel
2012, In Defence of the Terror: Liberty or Death in the French Revolution
2012, Hegel’s Rabble: An Investigation Into Hegel’s Philosophy of Right
2012, Concept and Form / Cahiers pour l’Analyse
2013, The Idea of Communism vol. 2: The New York Conference
2013, Penumbr(a)
2013, Biopolitics: A Reader
2014, Žižek’s Jokes
2014, State in Time
2014, Theology after Lacan: The Passion for the Real
2015, The Slovene re-actualization of Hegel’s philosophy
2016, Slavoj Žižek and Dialectical Materialism
2016, The Idea of Communism vol. 3: The Seoul Conference
2016, Sex and Nothing: Bridges from Psychoanalysis to Philosophy
2016, Is Lacan an Anti-Philosopher?
2018, Janez Janša and Beyond

Secondary Literature

2003, ‘Slavoj Žižek’ by Tony Myers
2004, Glyn Daly: Conversations With Žižek
2004, Ian Parker: Slavoj Žižek – A Critical Introduction
2004, Matthew Sharpe: A Little Piece of the Real
2005, Rex Butler: Slavoj Žižek – Live Theory
2005, Geoff Boucher, Jason Glynos, Matthew Sharpe: Traversing the Fantasy
2006, Jodi Dean: Žižek’s Politics
2007, Fabio Vighi & Heiko Feldner: Žižek – Beyond Foucault
2008, Adam Kotsko: Žižek and Theology
2008, Adrian Johnston: Žižek’s Ontology
2008, Marcus Pound: A (Very) Critical Introduction
2008, Thomas Brockelman: Žižek and Heidegger
2009, Adrian Johnston: Badiou, Žižek, and Political Transformations
2010, Fabio Vighi: On Žižek’s Dialectics
2010, Matthew Sharpe & Geoff Boucher: Žižek and Politics: A Critical Introduction
2011, Introducing Slavoj Žižek: A Graphic Guide
2012, Kelsey Wood: Žižek: A Reader’s Guide
2012, Matthew Flisfeder: The Symbolic, the Sublime, and Slavoj Žižek’s Theory of Film
2013, ‘The Left Hemisphere: Mapping Critical Theory Today’ by Razmig Keucheyan
2013, Žižek Now: Current Perspectives in Žižek Studies
2014, Žižek and His Contemporaries: On the Emergence of the Slovenian Lacan
2014, ‘The Žižek Dictionary’ by Rex Butler
2015, ‘Žižek and Law’ by Laurent de Sutter
2015, Repeating Žižek
2018, ‘Does the Internet Have an Unconscious? Slavoj Žižek and Digital Culture’ by Clint Burnham
2018, ‘The Reception of Paul the Apostle in the Works of Slavoj Žižek’ by Ole Jakob Løland

Secondary Literature in Other Languages

2021, ‘¿Alguien dijo crisis del marxismo?: Axel Honneth, Slavoj Žižek y las nuevas teorías críticas de la sociedad’ de Santiago Roggerone


Video Recordings

1994, 23rd February, Home as Radical Evil
1999, 2nd Decem­ber, Liebe Deinen Näch­sten? Nein, Danke!
2002, On Belief and Oth­er­ness
2003, Mar­kets Without Sub­stance
2003, 10th March, Love without Mercy
2004, A Plea for Eth­ical Viol­ence
2004, 8th June, The Spectator’s Malevol­ent Neut­ral­ity
2005, 18th November, Who Believes What Today? (with Cornel West)
2006, 1. May, The Euthanasia of Tol­er­ant Reason
2006, 10th Novem­ber, Why Only an Athe­ist Can Believe
2006, 15th November, Polit­ics Between Fear and Ter­ror
2006, 20th Novem­ber, Can One Really Tolerate a Neighbor?
2006, ‘Jacques Lacan: A Lateral Introduction’ Masterclass
2007, Mater­i­al­ism and Theo­logy
2007, Eco­logy without Nature
2007, The Lib­eral Uto­pia
2007, Knjižn­ica Otona Zupančiča
2007, Ned­jel­jom u 2
2007, 17. Novem­ber, Embed­ded in Ideo­logy
2007, 26. Novem­ber, Eco­logy: A New Opium of the Masses
2007, 26. Novem­ber, Fear Thy Neigh­bor as Thy­self: Anti­nom­ies of Tol­er­ant Reason
2008, 11. March, Demo­cracy Now!
2008, On Viol­ence, May 26th
2008, 3. Septem­ber, Moral Relativ­ism and Viol­ence: A Debate with Steven Lukes
2008, 9. Septem­ber, Maybe We Just Need Dif­fer­ent Chicken, Polite­ness and Civil­ity in the Func­tion of Ideo­logy
2008, 6. Decem­ber, From The Cri­tique of Reli­gion to the Cri­tique of Polit­ical Eco­nomy
2008, 12. Septem­ber, Violence at Google
2008, 15. Septem­ber, On Viol­ence
2008, 16. Septem­ber: Viol­ence & the Left in Dark Times
2009, Masterclass on Hegel
2009, Con­front­ing Human­ity & The Post-Mod­ern
2009, Anti-Semit­ism, Anti-Semite and Jew
2009, 20. Janu­ary, No Sex please, We are Post-Human
2009, 6. March, Why Todestrieb is a Philo­soph­ical Concept
2009, June, ‘Notes Towards a Definition of Communist Culture’ Masterclass
2009, July, What Does it Mean to Be a Revolutionary Today?
2009, 3. July, The Poetico-Mil­it­ary Com­plex: The Actu­al­ity of Plato’s Cri­tique of Poetry
2009, 20. Octo­ber, We’re Only Human
2009, 4th November, 20th Century Communism
2009, 17. Novem­ber, The Uses and Mis­uses of Viol­ence
2009, 24. Novem­ber, Apo­ca­lyptic Times2009, Entrevista:Roda Viva
2009, Con­front­ing Human­ity & The Post-Mod­ern
2009, Whither the “Death of God”: A Con­tinu­ing Cur­rency?
2009, Amerika proti Evropi: kul­turni boj?
2009, 6. March, Death Drive and Nir­vana Prin­ciple: Tension/Release
2009, 6. March, Why Todestrieb is a Philo­soph­ical Con­cept
2009, Anti-Semit­ism, Anti-Semite and Jew
2009, What Does It Mean to Be a Revolu­tion­ary Today?
2009, The Future of Europe
2009, 20. April, The Mon­stros­ity of Christ
2009, May, What happened in the first dec­ade of the XXI cen­tury
2009, May, Ideo­logy between Symp­tom and Fet­ish
2009, 13. Septem­ber, Pred­stavitev nove izdaje Komun­ističnega mani­festa
2009, 7. October, The Polit­ical Par­al­lax
2010, The Cul­ture Show
2010, Janu­ary, India Hab­itat Centre: First Annual Navay­ana Lec­ture
2010, Janu­ary, Puis­sances du Com­mun­isme
2010, March, Liv­ing in the End Times
2010, 5. May, Sub­vers­ive Film Fest­ival: The Col­lapse of Neo­lib­er­al­ism and the Future of Social­ism today
2010, 28. May, Is Lacan an Anti-Philo­sopher?
2010, 10. June, Archi­tec­ture and Aes­thet­ics
2010, 1. July, Liv­ing in the End Times
2010, July, The Idea of Com­mun­ism
2010, 10. Novem­ber, AlJaz­eera: Liv­ing in the End Times
2010, 12. Octo­ber, Why Only an Athe­ist Can Be a True Chris­tian
2010, 13. Octo­ber, Are Cata­strophes Vir­tual?
2010, Decem­ber, Greece
2010, 19. Decem­ber, Costas Douz­inas & Sla­voj Žižek
2010, 15. October, Philo­sophy and Com­mun­ism (with Badiou)
2010, 28. May, Is Lacan an Anti-Philo­sopher? (with Badiou)
2010, July, Com­mun­ism in the 21st Cen­tury
2010, 13. Octo­ber, Are Cata­strophes Vir­tual?
2011, Is It Still Pos­sible to Be a Hegel­ian Today?
2011, Cooper Union, First as Tragedy, Then as Farce
2011, Feb­ru­ary, Tariq Ramadan & Sla­voj Žižek
2011, June, Birk­beck Insti­tute Sum­mer School
2011, 24. June, Tel Aviv
2011, 1. July, Great Minds
2011, 5. July, Wikileaks: Assange & Žižek
2011, 9. May, Cata­strophic But Not Ser­i­ous
2011, March, Peru
2011, 31. March, Is It Still Pos­sible to Be a Hegel­ian Today?
2011, 3. Octo­ber, A Very Dan­ger­ous Q&A
2011, 8th Octo­ber, “We Are The Awaken­ing”, Occupy Wall Street Talk
2011, 26. Octo­ber, Charlie Rose
2011, 26. Octo­ber, St. Mark’s Book­shop
2011, 5. Novem­ber, The Empower­ment of the Right and the Dis­sol­u­tion of the Left
2011, 13. Novem­ber, AlJaz­eera: Cap­it­al­ism with Asian val­ues
2011, 17. Novem­ber, In Prague
2011, 27. Novem­ber, Eerst als tra­gedie, dan als klucht
2011, 23. March, The Idea of Communism and its Actuality
2011, 25. March, Lacan and Sexual Difference
2011, 26. March, The Lim­its of Hegel
2011, 1. July, Great Minds
2011, 21. Octo­ber, Free­dom in the Clouds
2011, 5. Novem­ber, The Empower­ment of the Right and the Dis­sol­u­tion of the Left
2011, 17. December, The Animal Doesn’t Exist
2012, The Lim­its of Hegel: Rabble, War, Sex and Mar­riage
2012, 28. Janu­ary, Istan­bul
2012, 29. Feb­ru­ary, The Dead­lock
2012, April, Julian Assange’s The World Tomor­row: Sla­voj Žižek & David Horow­itz
2012, 24. April, God in Pain: Inver­sions of Apo­ca­lypse
2012, 14. May, Signs from the Future
2012, May, Tariq Ali & Sla­voj Žižek: The Crisis of Europe
2012, 3. June, The Heart of the People of Europe Beats in Greece
2012, 12. June, Less than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism
2012, Com­mun­ist Absconditus
2012, The Buddhist Ethic and the Spirit of Global Cap­it­al­ism
2012, Al Jaz­eera Balkans
2012, 21. August, Is it Still Pos­sible to be a Hegel­ian Today?
2012, 7. Septem­ber, The Pervert’s Guide to Ideo­logy: A Con­ver­sa­tion
2012, 16. Octo­ber, Uni­vers­ity of Ver­mont
2012, 19. Octo­ber, The Con­di­tions of Pos­sib­il­ity
2012, Dif­fer­ent Fig­ures of The Big Other
2012, 13. Decem­ber, The Desert of Post-Ideo­logy Mas­ter­class
2012, The Wire: The Clash of Civilisations in One Country
2012, Onto­lo­gical Incom­plete­ness in Paint­ing, Lit­er­at­ure and Quantum The­ory
2012, The Buddhist Ethic and the Spirit of Global Cap­it­al­ism
2012, Com­mun­ist Absconditus
2012, On Mel­an­choly
2012, The Func­tion of Fantasy in the Lacanian Real
2012, Objet petit a and the Func­tion of Ideo­logy
2012, Being and Sub­jectiv­ity
2012, Lacanian Theo­logy and Buddhism
2012, The Big Other and The Event of Sub­jectiv­ity
2012, The Inter­na­tional Journal of Žižek Stud­ies Con­fer­ence
2012, 29. Feb­ru­ary, The Dead­lock
2012, 14. May, Signs from the Future
2012, 24. April, God in Pain
2012, 2. Octo­ber, On the Desert of Post-Ideo­logy
2012, Where is Balkan?
2012, 21th August, Is it Still Possible to Be a Hegelian Today?
2013, 25th-29th Novem­ber, ‘Com­mun­ism: An Idea that Divides’ Mas­ter­class
2014, 17. May, Voyeur­ism and Digital Iden­tity
2014, 18. May, Sur­veil­lance and Whis­tleblowers
2014, 26. Septem­ber, The Hegel­ian Wound
2014, Objet petit a and Digital Civil­iz­a­tion
2014, 22. May, Towards a Mater­i­al­ist The­ory of Sub­jectiv­ity
2014, Novem­ber, Towards a Mater­i­al­ist Notion of Free­dom
2014, 12. Decem­ber, A Defence of Uni­ver­sal­ism
2014, 16. Decem­ber, BBC Radio: Free Think­ing
2015, 31. March, Stalin: Para­doxes of Power
2015, May, What Does it Mean to be a Great Thinker Today?
2015, 4. June, Moins que rien. Hegel et l’ombre du matérialisme dialectique
2015, 15. June L’immanence des vérités (french)
2015, 8. Octo­ber, More Ali­en­a­tion, Please! A Cri­tique of Cul­tural Viol­ence
2015, 14. Octo­ber, Is Hegel Dead—Or Are We Dead in the Eyes of Hegel? A View of the Present Age
2015, 16. Novem­ber, Žižek, Varoufakis & Assange: Europe is Kaput. Long live Europe!
2015, 19. Novem­ber, Über Mandela hinaus ohne Mugabe zu werden. Einige postapokalyptische Überlegungen.
2015, 21. Novem­ber, The Pervert’s Guide to Europe
2015, 31. March, A Dis­cus­sion About Sta­lin­ism (with Steven Kotkin)
2015, April, Fig­ures of Neg­at­iv­ity Mas­ter­class
2015, 14. April, Syr­iza: A New Name for Free­dom
2015, 15. April, Onto­logy and Sexual Dif­fer­ence Conference (with Dolar & Zupančič)
2015, 6. July, Neg­at­iv­ity in Mater­i­al­ist Theo­logy
2015, 7. July, Uni­ver­sal­ity: Kant, Hegel, Lacan, Marx
2015, 8. July, Impossib­il­ity as the Lacanian Real
2015, 25. July, Rad­ical Polit­ics Today: Hegel’s Teach­ing
2015, 25. Septem­ber, The Meta­phys­ics of Love
2015, 19. November, Über Mandela hinaus ohne Mugabe zu werden. Einige postapokalyptische Überlegungen
2015, 21. Novem­ber, The Birth of Com­edy out of the Spirit of Des­pair (with Jela Krečič)
2015, 2-4th Decem­ber, ‘Hegelian Battles’ A Masterclass
2016, 20. Janu­ary: Sla­voj Žižek, Mladen Dolar & Udi Aloni: Rad­ical Grace
2016, 19. April, Sla­voj Žižek & Gary Younge: Against The Double Black­mail, Guard­ian Live event
2016, 23. May, Rage, Rebel­lion, Organ­iz­ing New Power: A Hegel­ian Triad
2016, 24. May, Toronto Inter­na­tional Film Fest­ival
2016, May, Sla­voj Žižek: An Inter­view for Red Zone
2016, 19. June, Sla­voj Žižek: Nieder mit der Ideo­lo­gie! | Stern­s­tunde Philo­sophie | SRF Cul­tur
2016, The Great Chal­lenge of The Left
2016, The Left Fails To Answer Global Crises With Valid Altern­at­ives
2016, Power, Betrayal and Brexit
2016, Freedom, Pos­sible and Impossible
2016, 18. April, Mas­ter­class 1: Sur­plus-Value, Sur­plus-Enjoy­ment, Sur­plus-Know­ledge
2016, 19. April, Mas­ter­class 2: Is Sur­plus-Value Marx’s Name For Sur­plus-Enjoy­ment?
2016, 20. April, Against the Double Black­mail: Refugees, Ter­ror and Other Troubles with the Neigh­bours
2016, 20. April, BBC Radio 3: Free Think­ing
2016, 27th October, Rage, Rebellion, New Power
2016, 31st Oct-2nd Nov, ‘Between Philosophy and Psychoanalysis’ Masterclass
2016, 9th November, Racial Enjoyments—What the Liberal Left Doesn’t Want to Hear
2016, 17th December, The Real of the Capitalist Illusion
2017, Christian Atheism
2017, 11th June, What’s Coming Next? A Discussion (with M.I.A., Horvat & Assange)
2018, 22th October, “On Your Marx”: The Fate of the Commons: A Trotskyite View
2018, 23rd October, The Dash—The Other Side of Absolute Knowing Discussion (with Comay & Ruda)
2018, 24th October, Samuel Beckett as the Writer of Political Abstraction
2018, 5-7th November, ‘Sex and the Failed Absolute’ Masterclass
2018, 8th November, On Samuel Beckett’s Art of Abstraction
2019, 8th April, Thinking the Human
2019, 16th April, Hegel with Neuralink
2019, 29-30th April ‘Disorder Under Heaven’ Masterclass
2019, 20th November, The Rise of Obscene Masters: Taking Donald Trump Seriously
2019, 25th November, A Crack In Everything: On Paradox
2020, 27th August, The Meaning of Hegel in 21st Century
2021, 24th April, Who is Afraid of the Middle East? (with Mina Nagy)
2021, 12th June, Reality as Materialized Ideology
2021, 17th June, Spiritual Crisis: Iranian Philosophy
2021, 5th July, Philosophy for Cynical Times
2021, 5th July, What Julian Assange has Started is the Greatest Challenge to Everything that is False with Western Notions of Freedom
2021, 14th July, The Legacy of the French Revolution
2021, 14th July 2021, Interview: Pandemic!
2021, 15th July 2021, Interview: Pandemic! 2: Chronicles of a Time Lost

Filmography & Appearances

1993, LAIBACH: A Film From Slovenia
1996, Liebe Dein Symptom wie Dich selbst!
1996, Predictions of Fire
2004, The Reality of the Virtual
2005, Žižek! by Astra Taylor
2006, The Pervert’s Guide to Cinema
2006, The Possibility of Hope
2006, Alien, Marx & Co. – Slavoj Žižek, Ein Porträt
2009, Examined Life
2009, Terror! Robespierre and the French Revolution
2011, Marx Reloaded
2012, The Pervert’s Guide to Ideology
2016, Houston, We Have a Problem!

‘The Plague of Fantasies’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Verso in 1997, includes two editions. Download link and description updated on 26. June 2021.

(2x .pdf)

Modern audiovisual media have spawned a ‘plague of fantasies’, electronically inspired phantasms that cloud the ability to reason and prevent a true understanding of a world increasingly dominated by abstractions—whether those of digital technology or the speculative market. Traditional critical thought would have sought to trace the roots of abstract notions in concrete social reality; but today, the correct procedure is the inverse—from pseudo-concrete imagery to the abstract process which structures our lives.

Slavoj Žižek’s peculiar blend of Lacan and Hegel is always endowed with insight and interwoven with amusing stories, anecdotes and jokes. In Plague of Fantasies he approaches examples from national differences in toilet design to cybersex, and from intellectuals’ responses to the Bosnian war to Robert Schumann’s music, explores the relations between fantasy and ideology, the way in which fantasy animates enjoyment while protecting against its excesses, the associations of the notion of fetishism with fantasized seduction, and the ways in which digitalization and cyberspace affect the status of subjectivity.

‘The Abyss of Freedom / Ages of the World’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published in The Body, In Theory: Histories of Cultural Materialism series by by University of Michigan Press in 1997.
Preview link updated on 24. June 2021.

(incomplete .pdf)

F. W. J. von Schelling has emerged as one of the key philosophers of German Idealism, the one who, for the first time, undermined Kant’s philosophical revolution and in so doing opened up the way for a viable critique of Hegel. In noted philosopher Slavoj Žižek’s view, the main orientations of the post-Hegelian thought, from Kierkegaard and Marx, to Heidegger and today’s deconstructionism, were prefigured in Schelling’s analysis of Hegel’s idealism, and in his affirmation that the contingency of existence cannot be reduced to notional self-mediation. In The Abyss of Freedom, Žižek attempts to advance Schelling’s stature even further, with a commentary of the second draft of Schelling’s work The Ages of the World, written in 1813.

Žižek argues that Schelling’s most profound thoughts are found in the series of three consecutive attempts he made to formulate the “ages of the world/Weltalter,” the stages of the self-development of the Absolute. Of the three versions, claims Žižek, it is the second that is the most eloquent and definitive encompassing of Schelling’s lyrical thought. It centers on the problem of how the Absolute (God) himself, in order to become actual, to exist effectively, has to accomplish a radically contingent move of acquiring material, bodily existence. Never before available in English, this version finally renders accessible one of the key texts of modern philosophy, a text that is widely debated in philosophical circles today.

The Abyss of Freedom is Žižek’s own reading of Schelling based upon Lacanian psychoanalytic theory. It focuses on the notion that Lacan’s theory–which claims that the symbolic universe emerged from presymbolic drives–is prefigured in Schelling’s idea of logos as given birth to from the vortex of primordial drives, or from what “in God is not yet God.” For Žižek, this connection is monumental, showing that Schelling’s ideas forcefully presage the post-modern “deconstruction” of logocentrism.

Slavoj Žižek is not a philosopher who stoops to conquer objects but a radical voice who believes that philosophy is nothing if it is not embodied, nothing if it is only abstract. For him, true philosophy always speaks of something rather than nothing. Those interested in the genesis of contemporary thought and the fate of reason in our “age of anxiety” will find this coupling of texts not only philosophically relevant, but vitally important.

‘The Indivisible Remainder: On Schelling and Related Matters’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Verso in 1996. Download link updated on 19th January 2022.


The feature which distinguishes the great works of materialist thought, from Lucretius’ De rerum natura through Capital to the writings of Lacan, is their unfinished character: again and again they tackle their chosen problem. Schelling’s Weltalter drafts belong to this same series, with their repeated attempt at the formulation of the ‘beginning of the world,’ of the passage from the pre-symbolic pulsation of the Real to the universe of logos.

F.W.J. Schelling, the German idealist who for too long dwelled in the shadow of Kant and Hegel, was the first to formulate the post-idealist motifs of finitude, contingency and temporality. His unique work announces Marx’s critique of speculative idealism, as well as the properly Freudian notion of drive, of a blind compulsion to repeat which can never be sublated in the ideal medium of language.

The Indivisible Remainder begins with a detailed examination of the two works in which Schelling’s speculative audacity reached its peak: his essay on human freedom and his drafts on the “Ages of the World.” After reconstituting their line of argumentation, Slavoj Žižek confronts Schelling with Hegel, and concludes by throwing a Schellingian light on some “related matters”: the consequences of the computerization of daily life for sexual experience; cynicism as today’s predominant form of ideology; the epistemological deadlocks of quantum physics.

Although the book is packed with examples from politics and popular culture — the unmistakable token of Žižek’s style — from Speed and Groundhog Day to Forrest Gump, it signals a major shift towards a systematic concern with the basic questions of philosophy and the roots of the crisis of our late-capitalist universe, centred around the enigma of modern subjectivity.

‘Mapping Ideology’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Verso in 1995. Download link updated on 26. June 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

Not so long ago, the term “ideology” was in considerable disrepute. Its use had become associated with a claim to know a truth beyond ideology, a radically unfashionable position. What then explains the sudden revival of interest in grappling with the questions that ‘ideology’ poses to social and cultural theory, as well as to political practice? Mapping Ideology presents a comprehensive sampling of the most important contemporary writing on the subject.

Slavoj Žižek’s introductory essay surveys the development of the concept from Marx to the present. Terry Eagleton, Peter Dews and Seyla Benhabib assess the decisive contributions of Lukacs and the Frankfurt School. A different tradition is revealed in an essay by the French post-structuralist Michel Pecheux, while the study of ideology is exemplified in classic texts by Theodor Adorno, Jacques Lacan and Louis Althusser. An intersection of Gramscian and Althusserian motifs appears in a now famous debate over ‘the dominant ideology thesis’, reprinted here. Pierre Bourdieu succinctly formulates his departure from this tradition in an interview with Eagleton. Further readings of the ideological are explored by Richard Rorty and Michele Barrett. Finally Fredric Jameson supplies an authoritative statement of the nature and position of the ideological in late capitalist society.

Mapping Ideology is an invaluable guide to what is now the most dynamic field of cultural theory.

‘For They Know Not What They Do: Enjoyment as a Political Factor’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Verso in 1991. Download link updated on 26. June 2021. Description updated on 23rd August 2021.


Psychoanalysis is less merciful than Christianity. Where God the Father forgives our ignorance, psychoanalysis holds out no such hope. Ignorance is not a sufficient ground for forgiveness since it masks enjoyment; an enjoyment which erupts in those black holes in our symbolic universe that escape the Father’s prohibition.

With the disintegration of Yugoslav state socialism after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, we witnessed this eruption of enjoyment in the re-emergence of aggressive nationalism and racism. With the lid of repression lifted, the desires that have emerged are far from democratic. To explain this apparent paradox socialist critical thought must turn to psychoanalysis.

In ‘For They Know Not What They Do’, Slavoj Žižek seeks to understand the status of enjoyment within ideological discourse, from Hegel through Lacan to these political and ideological deadlocks. The author’s own enjoyment of “popular culture” makes this an engaging and lucid exposition, in which Hegel joins hands with Rossellini, Marx with Hitchcock, Lacan with Frankenstein, high theory with Hollywood melodrama.

Slavoj Žižek is a Philosopher and psychoanalytic social theorist. He is Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana; Professor at the School of Law and Director of the Institute for the Humanities at Birkbeck, University of London; Distinguished Scholar at the Kyung Hee University, Seoul; and Visiting Professor at the German Department, New York University. His field of work comprises Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, dialectical-materialist metaphysical interpretations of German Idealism and Marxian critique of ideology. His more than sixty books in English have been widely translated. His latest publications include Pandemic! & Pandemic! 2, Hegel in a Wired Brain, Sex and the Failed Absolute, Like A Thief In Broad DaylightReading MarxIncontinence of the Void, and The Day After the Revolution.

‘The Sublime Object of Ideology’ by Slavoj Žižek

First published by Verso in 1989. Download link and description updated on 26. June 2021.

(.epub & .pdf)

The Sublime Object of Ideology was Žižek’s first book to have appeared in English in 1989, which instantly became an astonishing international success of global academic scholarship at that time, and later a classic of philosophical literature, an achievement which even he himself has only attempted to mimic and surpass since then, with more or less luck, in countless later publications that have since been published over the following decades.

Slavoj Žižek traverses the fields of philosophy, psychoanalysis, theology, history and political theory, taking in film, popular culture, literature and jokes—all to provide acute analyses of the complexities of contemporary ideology as well as a serious and sophisticated philosophy. Linking key psychoanalytical and philosophical concepts to social phenomena such as totalitarianism and racism, the book explores the political significance of these fantasies of control.

This provocative and original work takes a look at the question of human agency in a postmodern world. From the sinking of the Titanic to Hitchcock’s Rear Window, from the operas of Richard Wagner to science fiction, from Alien to the Jewish joke, Žižek’s acute analyses explore the ideological fantasies of wholeness and exclusion that make up human society.

‘Notes Towards a Definition of Communist Culture’ Masterclass by Slavoj Žižek

The event took place from 15th to 19th June 2009 at Birbkeck Institute for the Humanities in London.

Everybody knows T. S. Eliot’s famous essay Notes towards the definition of culture. This masterclass analyses phenomena of modern thought and culture with the intention to discern elements of possible Communist culture. It moves at two levels: first, it interprets some cultural phenomena (from today’s architecture to classic literary works like Rousseau’s La Nouvelle Heloise) as failures to imagine or enact a Communist culture; second, it explores attempts at imagining how a Communist culture could look, from Wagner’s Ring to Kafka’s and Beckett’s short stories and contemporary science fiction novels.

Day 1:

Different Utopian Visions


Day 2:

Architecture as Ideology: the Failure of Performance-Arts Venues to construct a Communal Space


Day 3:

Wagner’s Ring as a Communist Narrative


Day 4:

Iran, Populism and Democracy


Day 5:

Environment, Identity and Multiculturalism



Allen Speight, Hegel, Literature and the Problem of Agency (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001)
Slavoj Žižek and John Millbank, The Monstrosity of Christ (Cambridge: MIT Press 2009)
Richard Wagner: The Ring of the Nibelungs (libretto, available on line)
Franz Kafka: Josephine the Singer, or the Mouse Folk (available online)
Samuel Beckett:  Not I (available online)
Theodor Sturgeon, Stranger Than Human (a classic sci-fi novel available in many editions).

‘Sensoria: Thinkers for the Twentieth-First Century’ by McKenzie Wark

Published by Verso in 2020.


As we face the compounded crises of late capitalism, environmental catastrophe and technological transformation, who are the thinkers and the ideas who will allow us to understand the world we live in? McKenzie Wark surveys three areas at the cutting edge of current critical thinking: design, environment, technology and introduces us to the thinking of nineteen major writers. Each chapter is a concise account of an individual thinker, providing useful context and connections to the work of the others.

The authors include: Sianne Ngai, Kodwo Eshun, Lisa Nakamura, Hito Steyerl, Yves Citton, Randy Martin, Jackie Wang, Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, Achille Mbembe, Deborah Danowich and Eduardo Viveiros de Castro, Eyal Weizman, Cory Doctorow, Benjamin Bratton, Tiziana Terranova, Keller Easterling, Jussi Parikka.

Wark argues that we are too often told that expertise is obtained by specialisation. Sensoria connects the themes and arguments across intellectual silos. They explore the edges of disciplines to show how we might know the world: through the study of culture, the different notions of how we create such things, and the impact that the machines that we devise have had upon us. The book is a vital and timely introduction to the future both as a warning but also as a road map on how we might find our way out of the current crisis.

‘A Radical Philosophy of Saint Paul’ by Stanislas Breton

Published by Columbia University Press in 2011.


Stanislas Breton’s A Radical Philosophy of Saint Paul, which focuses on the political implications of the apostle’s writings, was an instrumental text in Continental philosophy’s contemporary “turn to religion.” Reading Paul’s work against modern thought and history, Breton helped launch a reassessment of Marxism, introduce secular interpretations of biblical and theological traditions, develop “radical negativity” as a critical category, and rework modern political ideas through a theoretical lens.

Newly translated and critically situated, this edition takes a fresh approach to Breton’s classic work, reacquainting readers with the remarkable ways in which an ancient apostle can reset our understanding of the political. Breton begins with Paul’s biography and the texts of his conversion, which challenge common conceptions of identity. He broaches the question of allegory and divine predestination, introduces the idea of subjectivity as an effect of power, and confronts Paul’s critique of Law, which leads to an exploration of the logics and limits of agency and power. Breton develops these and other insights in relation to Paul’s subversive reflections on the crucified messiah, which challenge meaning and reason and upend our current world order. Neither a coherent theologian nor a stable humanist, Breton’s Paul becomes a fascinating figure of excess and madness, experiencing a kind of being that transcends philosophy, secularity, and religion.

‘The Kingdom and the Garden’ by Giorgio Agamben

Published by University of Chicago Press in 2020.


What happened to paradise after Adam and Eve were expelled? The question may sound like a theological quibble, or even a joke, but in The Kingdom and the Garden, Giorgio Agamben uses it as a starting point for an investigation of human nature and the prospects for political transformation.

In a tour-de-force reinterpretation of the Christian tradition, Agamben shows that the Garden of Eden has always served as a symbol for humanity’s true nature. Where earlier theologians viewed the expulsion as temporary, Augustine’s doctrine of original sin makes it permanent, reimagining humanity as the paradoxical creature that has been completely alienated from its own nature. From this perspective, there can be no return to paradise, only the hope for the messianic kingdom. Yet there have always been thinkers who rebelled against this idea, and Agamben highlights two major examples.

The first is the early medieval philosopher John Scotus Eriugena, who argued for a radical unity of humanity with all living things. The second is Dante, whose vision of the earthly paradise points towards the possibility of a genuine human happiness in this world. In place of the messianic kingdom, which has provided the model for modern revolutionary movements, Agamben contends that we should place our hopes for political change in a return to our origins, by reclaiming the earthly paradise.

‘Descartes/Lacan’ by Alain Badiou

translated by Sigi Jöttkandt with Daniel Collins, Umbr(a): A Journal of the Unconscious: On Badiou (1996): 13—16.

[The cogito], as a moment, is the aftermath (défilé) of a rejection (rejét) of all knowledge, but it nevertheless claimed to establish for the subject a certain anchoring in being.

— Jacques Lacan, “La science et la vérite”

It can never be sufficiently emphasized that the Lacanian watchword of a return to Freud is originally coupled with an expression of Lacan’s which goes back to 1946: “the call for a return to Descartes would not be superfluous.” The means by which these two injunctions are connected is the dictum that the subject of psychoanalysis is nothing other than the subject of science. But this identity can only be grasped by attempting to think the subject in its own place. That which localizes the subject is at the same time the point at which Freud is intelligible only through the lineage of the Cartesian gesture, and where he subverts, through de-localization, the pure coincidence of the subject with itself, its reflexive transparency.

What renders the cogito irrefutable is the form which one can give to it where the where insists: “Cogito ergo sum,” ubi cogito, ibi sum. The point of the subject is that there where it thinks that thinking it must be, it is. The connection of being and place founds the radical existence of enounciation as subject.

Lacan exposes the chicanery of place in the disorientating utterances of the subject that supposes that “I am not, there where I am the plaything of my thought: I think of what I am where I do not think to think.” The unconscious designates that “it thinks” there where I am not, but where I must come to be. Thus the subject finds itself decentered [excentré”] from the place of transparency where it announces its being, without failing to read in this a complete rupture with Descartes, which Lacan indicates by saying that the subject does not “misrecognize” that the conscious certainty of existence – the home of the cogito – is not immanent but transcendent. “Transcendent” because the subject can only coincide with the line of identification that proposes this certainty to it. More precisely, the subject is the refuse of this certainty.

There, in truth, is the whole question. Cutting quickly through what this implies as to the common ground between Lacan, Descartes, and what I propose here, which ultimately concerns the status of truth as a generic hole in knowledge, I will say that the debate rests upon the localization of the void.

What still links Lacan (but that “still” is the modern perpetuation of sense) to the Cartesian epoch of science is the thought that it is necessary to hold the subject in the pure void of its subtraction if one wishes that truth be saved. Only such a subject lets itself be sutured in the logical, integrally transmissible form of science.

Yes or no – is the empty set the proper name of being as such? Or must we believe that this term more appropriately applies to the subject – as if its purification from all substance that one could know should deliver the truth (which speaks) through de-centering the null point in eclipse in the interval of the multiple that, under the name of “signifiers,” guarantees material presence?

The choice here is between a structural recurrence, which thinks the subject-effect as the empty set, so exposed in he uniform network of experience, and a hypothesis of the rarity of the subject, which defers its occurrance to the event, to the intervention, and to the generic paths of fidelity, referring back and founding the void on the function of the suturing of being for which mathematics exclusively commands knowledge.

In neither case is the subject substance or consciousness. But the first road conserves the Cartesian gesture, its decentered dependence with regard to language. I have proof of this, since Lacan, in writing that “thought only grounds being by knotting itself in speech where every operation goes right to the essence of language,” maintains the design of ontological foundation that Descartes encounters in the transparency, both void and absolutely certain, of the cogito. Certainly, he organizes the turnings very differently, since the void for him is delocalized, no pure reflection can give us access there. But the intrusion of the outside term – language – does not suffice to reverse this order which implies that it is necessary from the point of the subject to enter into the examination of truth as cause.

I maintain that it is not truth which causes the suffering from false plenitude when the subject is overcome by anxiety (“does or doesn’t what you [analysts] do imply that the truth of neurotic suffering lies in having the truth as cause?”). A truth is that indiscernible multiple a subject supports the finite approximation of. In result, its ideality to come (the nameless correlate of the name an event would have if it could be named) is the truth from which one may legitimately designate a subject – that random figure which, without the indiscernible, would only be an incoherent continuation of encyclopedic determinations.

If one would point to a cause of the subject, it is less necessary to return to the truth, which is above all the stuff of the subject, or to the infinite, for which the subject is the finite, as to the event. Consequently, the void is no longer the eclipse of the subject, being in relation to Being such that it has been summoned up by the event as the errancy in the situation by sin intervening nomination.

By a sort of inversion of these categories, I will arrange the subject in relation to the ultra-one (l’ultra-un), even though it would itself be the trajectory of multiples (the inquiries), the void in relation to being, and truth in relation to the indiscernible.

Besides, what is at stake here is not so much the subject – save to free that which still, by the supposition of its structural permanence, makes Lacan a founder among those who echo the previous epoch. Rather, it is the opening on a history of truth finely totally disjointed from what Lacan, with genius, called exactitude, or adequation, but what his gesture, too welded to a single language, allowed to survive as the reverse of truth.

A truth, if one thinks of it as being only one generic part of the situation, is the source of the veridical from the moment that the subject forces an undecidable into the future anterior. But if the veridical touches language (in the most general sense of the term), truth only exists there as undifferentiated; its procedure is generic insofar as it avoids the entire encyclopedic hold of judgments.

The essential character of names, the names of the language-subject, attaches itself to the subjective capacity of anticipation, by forcing (forçage) that which will have been veridical from the point of a supposed truth. But names only create the appearance of the thing in ontology, where it is true that a generic extension results from the placing-into-being of the entire system of names. However, even there, it is just a matter of simple appearance. For the reference of a name depends upon the generic part which is implicated in the particularity of the extension. The name only founds its reference under the hypothesis that the indiscernible will have been already completely described by the set of conditions that, in other respects, it is. In its nominal capacity, a subject is under the condition of one indiscernible, thus of one generic procedure, thus of one fidelity, of one intervention and ultimately of one event.

What is lacking in Lacan – even though this lack would only be legible to us having first of all read in his texts that which, far from lacking, founded the possibility of a modern regime of the true – is the radical suspension of truth in the supplementation of a Being-in-situation by an event, separator of the void.

The “there is” (il y a) of a subject is, by the ideal occurrence of a truth, the coming-to-be of the event in its finite modalities. Moreover, we always have to understand that there was no “il y a” of the subject, that this “il y a” is no more. What Lacan owes to Descartes, the debt whose account must be closed, is the assumption that “il y a” was always there.

When the Chicago Americans shamelessly utilized Freud to substitute the re-educative methods of a “consolidation of the ego” for the truth from which a subject proceeds, it was with just cause, and for the salvation of all, that Lacan opened against them this merciless war that his true students and heirs have continued to prosecute. But they have been wrong to believe that -things remaining as they are – they could win.

Because it was not a matter of an error or of an ideological perversion. It is obviously what one could believe, if one supposed that there were an “always” of the truth and of the subject. More seriously, the people in Chicago acknowledged in their own fashion what the truth withdraws from and, with that, the subject which authorizes it. They are situated in a historical and geographical space where fidelity to the events – of which Freud or Lenin or Cantor or Malevich or Schoenberg are the operators – is no longer practicable apart from the ineffective forms of dogmatism or orthodoxy. Nothing generic could ever be imagined in this space.

Lacan thought that he redressed the Freudian doctrine of the subject, but in fact, new-comer to the Viennese shores, he has reproduced an operator of fidelity postulating the horizon of an indiscernible, and we are persuaded again that there is, in this uncertain world, a subject.

If we now examine what is still allowed us in philosophical traffic in the modern dispensation, and consequently what our tasks are, we can make a table like this:

a. It is possible to reinterrogate the entire history of philosophy since its Greek origin under the hypothesis of a mathematical ordering of the ontological question. One will thus see taking shape at the same time a continuity and a periodization very different from that deployed by Heidegger. In particular, the genealogy of the doctrine of truth will lead us to pinpoint, by singular interpretations, how the unnamed categories of the “event” and of the “indiscernible” work throughout the text of metaphysics. I believe I have given several examples of this.

b. A close analysis of the procedures of logico-mathematics since Cantor and Frege will make it possible to think what this intellectual revolution (a blind return of ontology onto its own essence) conditions in contemporary rationality. This work will make it possible to undo, on its own ground, the monopoly of Anglo-Saxon positivism.

c. As regards the doctrine of the subject, this particular examination of each of the generic procedures will open up to an aesthetics, to a theory of science, to a political philosophy, and finally to the mysteries of love, to a non-fusional conjuncture with psychoanalysis. All of modern art, all of the uncertainties of science, all of the militant tasks still prescribed by a ruined Marxism and finally, all of that designated by the name of Lacan will be re-encountered, reworked, gone through, by a philosophy brought up to date through clarified categories.

And we will be able to say in this voyage, at least if we have not lost the memory of that which the event alone authorizes, that Being – that which is called Being – founds the finite place of a subject who decides: “Nothingness gone, the castle of purity remains.”

‘A Brief Introduction To Psychoanalytic Theory’ by Stephen Frosh

Published by Palgrave Macmillan in 2012.

(.pdf & .epub)

Psychoanalytic theory remains hugely influential to our understanding of the mind and human behaviour. It provides a rich source of ideas for therapeutic practice, while offering dramatic insights for the study of culture and society. This comprehensive review of the field:

  • Explores the birth of psychoanalysis, taking the reader step by step through Freud’s original ideas and how they developed and evolved.
  • Provides a clear account of fundamental psychoanalytic concepts.
  • Discusses the different schools of psychoanalysis that have emerged since Freud.
  • Illustrates the wider applications of psychoanalytic ideas across film, literature and politics.

Written by a highly respected authority on psychoanalysis, this book is essential reading for trainees in counselling and psychotherapy, as well as for students across the arts, humanities and social sciences.

‘Memoirs of My Nervous Illness’ by Daniel Paul Schreber

Published in 2000 by NYRB Classics.


In 1884, the distinguished German jurist Daniel Paul Schreber suffered the first of a series of mental collapses that would afflict him for the rest of his life. In his madness, the world was revealed to him as an enormous architecture of nerves, dominated by a predatory God. It became clear to Schreber that his personal crisis was implicated in what he called a “crisis in God’s realm,” one that had transformed the rest of humanity into a race of fantasms. There was only one remedy; as his doctor noted: Schreber “considered himself chosen to redeem the world, and to restore to it the lost state of Blessedness. This, however, he could only do by first being transformed from a man into a woman….”

The wonderful Schreber…ought to have been made a professor of psychiatry and director of a mental hospital.

— Sigmund Freud

‘My Own Private Germany: Daniel Paul Schreber’s Secret History of Modernity’ by Eric L. Santner

Published by Princeton University Press in 1996.


In November 1893, Daniel Paul Schreber, recently named presiding judge of the Saxon Supreme Court, was on the verge of a psychotic breakdown and entered a Leipzig psychiatric clinic. He would spend the rest of the nineteenth century in mental institutions. Once released, he published his Memoirs of My Nervous Illness (1903), a harrowing account of real and delusional persecution, political intrigue, and states of sexual ecstasy as God’s private concubine. Freud’s famous case study of Schreber elevated the Memoirs into the most important psychiatric textbook of paranoia. In light of Eric Santner’s analysis, Schreber’s text becomes legible as a sort of “nerve bible” of fin-de-siècle preoccupations and obsessions, an archive of the very phantasms that would, after the traumas of war, revolution, and the end of empire, coalesce into the core elements of National Socialist ideology.

The crucial theoretical notion that allows Santner to pass from the “private” domain of psychotic disturbances to the “public” domain of the ideological and political genesis of Nazism is the “crisis of investiture.” Schreber’s breakdown was precipitated by a malfunction in the rites and procedures through which an individual is endowed with a new social status: his condition became acute just as he was named to a position of ultimate symbolic authority. The Memoirs suggest that we cross the threshold of modernity into a pervasive atmosphere of crisis and uncertainty when acts of symbolic investiture no longer usefully transform the subject’s self understanding. At such a juncture, the performative force of these rites of institution may assume the shape of a demonic persecutor, some “other” who threatens our borders and our treasures. Challenging other political readings of Schreber, Santner denies that Schreber’s delusional system—his own private Germany—actually prefigured the totalitarian solution to this defining structural crisis of modernity. Instead, Santner shows how this tragic figure succeeded in avoiding the totalitarian temptation by way of his own series of perverse identifications, above all with women and Jews.

Eric L. Santner is the Harriet and Ulrich E. Meyer Professor of Modern European Jewish History at the University of Chicago, where he teaches in the Department of Germanic Studies. He is the author of Stranded Objects: Mourning, Memory, and Film in Postwar Germany.

Reading Capital: The Complete Edition

(.pdf & .epub)

Originally published in 1965, Reading Capital is a landmark of French thought and radical theory, reconstructing Western Marxism from its foundations. Althusser maintained that Marx’s project could only be revived if its scientific and revolutionary novelty was thoroughly divested of all traces of humanism, idealism, Hegelianism and historicism. In order to complete this critical rereading, Althusser and his students at the École normale supérieure ran a seminar on Capital, re-examining its arguments, strengths and weaknesses in detail, and it was out of those discussions that this book was born.

Žižek’s Jokes (Did you hear the one about Hegel and Negation?)

Published by MIT Press in 2014. Download link updated on 18. December 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

For decades, a classic joke has been circulating among Lacanians to exemplify the key role of the Other’s knowledge: a man who believes himself to be a grain of seed, afraid that a chicken will eat him, is taken to a mental institution where the doctors do their best to convince him that he is not a grain of seed but a man; however, when he is cured (convinced that he is not a grain of seed, but a man) and allowed to leave the hospital, he immediately comes back, trembling and very scared—there is a chicken outside the door, and he is afraid it will eat him. “My dear fellow,” says his doctor, “you know very well that you are not a grain of seed, but a man.” “Of course I know,” replies the patient, “but does the chicken know it?”

Therein resides the true stake of psychoanalytic treatment: it is not enough to convince the patient about the unconscious truth of his symptoms; the unconscious itself must be brought to assume this truth. The same holds true for the Marxian theory of commodity fetishism: we can imagine a bourgeois subject attending a Marxism course where he is taught about commodity fetishism. After the course, he comes back to his teacher, complaining that he is still the victim of commodity fetishism. The teacher tells him “But you know now how things stand, that commodities are only expressions of social relations, that there is nothing magic about them!” to which the pupil replies: “Of course I know all that, but the commodities I am dealing with seem not to know it!” This is what Lacan aimed at in his claim that the true formula of materialism is not “God doesn’t exist,” but “God is unconscious.”

“A serious and good philosophical work could be written consisting entirely of jokes.”—Ludwig Wittgenstein

Unlike any other book by Slavoj Žižek, this compact arrangement of jokes culled from his writings provides an index to certain philosophical, political, and sexual themes that preoccupy his work. Žižek’s Jokes contains the set-ups and punch lines—as well as the offenses and insults—that Žižek is famous for, all in less than 200 pages.

For Žižek, jokes are amusing stories that offer a shortcut to philosophical insight. He illustrates the logic of the Hegelian triad, for example, with three variations of the “Not tonight, dear, I have a headache” classic: first the wife claims a migraine; then the husband does; then the wife exclaims, “Darling, I have a terrible migraine, so let’s have some sex to refresh me!” A punch line about a beer bottle provides a Lacanian lesson about one signifier. And a “truly obscene” version of the famous “aristocrats” joke has the family offering a short course in Hegelian thought rather than a display of unspeakables.

Žižek’s Jokes contains every joke cited, paraphrased, or narrated in Žižek’s work in English (including some in unpublished manuscripts), including different versions of the same joke that make different points in different contexts. The larger point being that comedy is central to Žižek’s seriousness.

‘Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation’ by Paul Ricœur


Freud and Philosophy: An Essay on Interpretation (French: De l’interprétation. Essai sur Sigmund Freud) is a 1965 book about Sigmund Freud, the founder of psychoanalysis, by the French philosopher Paul Ricœur. In Freud and Philosophy, Ricœur interprets Freud’s work in terms of hermeneutics, the theory of the rules that govern the interpretation of a particular text, and discusses phenomenology, a school of philosophy founded by Edmund Husserl. He addresses questions such as the nature of interpretation in psychoanalysis, the understanding of human nature to which it leads, and the relationship between Freud’s interpretation of culture and other interpretations. The book was first published in France by Éditions du Seuil, and in the United States by Yale University Press.

Ricœur explores what he considers a tension in Freud’s work between an emphasis on “energetics”, which explains psychological phenomena in terms of quantities of energy, and an emphasis on hermeneutics. He compares Freud to the philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Nietzsche, describing the trio as a “school of suspicion”, and explores similarities and differences between psychoanalysis and phenomenology. He also compares Freud’s ideas to those of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, criticizes Freud’s views on religion, discusses language, and further develops ideas about symbols explored in his earlier work The Symbolism of Evil (1960). In response to criticism of the scientific status of psychoanalysis by philosophers such as Ernest Nagel, Ricœur argues that psychoanalysis should be understood not as an observational science, but as an “interpretation” that resembles history rather than psychology. He criticizes psychoanalysts for failing to adopt this as their response to arguments that psychoanalysis is unscientific.

Commentators have praised Ricœur’s discussion of Freud’s theories, his exploration of usually neglected aspects of Freud’s work, his comparison of Freud to Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche, and his discussion of phenomenology. However, Freud and Philosophy became controversial. While the work was well received in France, it was also criticized there because phenomenology had become unfashionable by the time it was published. The work angered the psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan, who accused Ricœur of borrowing his ideas without attribution; although scholars have rejected the accusation, Lacan’s followers attacked Ricœur.

Freud and Philosophy received positive reviews upon the publication of its English translation in 1970. The book was described as one of the most important discussions of psychoanalysis and Ricœur was praised for his discussion of symbols. He was also credited with convincingly criticizing Freud’s views on both symbols and religion generally.

“Paul Ricœuer…has done a study that is all too rare these days, in which one intellect comes to grips with another, in which a scholar devotes himself to a thoughtful, searching, and comprehensive study of a genius…The final result is a unique survey of the panorama of Freudian thought by an observer who, although starting from outside, succeeds in penetrating to its core.” –American Journal of Psychiatry

“Primarily an inquiry into the foundations of language and hermeneutics…[Ricœur uses] the Freudian ‘hermeneutics of suspicion’ as a corrective and counter-balance for phenomenology and create a ‘new phenomenology’…This important work…should have an impact upon serious thinking in philosophy, theology, psychology, and other areas which have been affected by Freud studies.”—International Philosophical Quarterly

“A stimulating tour de force that allows us to envisage both the psychoanalytic body of knowledge and the psychoanalytic movement in a broad perspective within the framework of its links to culture, history and the evolution of Western intellectual thought.” – Psychoanalytic Quarterly 

Paul Ricœur (1913–2005) was a distinguished French philosopher of the twentieth century, one whose work has been widely translated and discussed across the world. In addition to his academic work, his public presence as a social and political commentator, particularly in France, led to a square in Paris being named in his honor on the centenary of his birth in 2013. In the course of his long career he wrote on a broad range of issues. In addition to his many books, Ricœur published more than 500 essays, many of which appear in collections in English. The Ricœur Archive in Paris has made many of those originally published in French available online through its website.

‘The Ordeal of Civility : Freud, Marx, Levi-Strauss & the Jewish Struggle with Modernity’ by John Murray Cuddihy

Published by Beacon Press in 1987.


Suggests that the analytical ideologies developed by Freud, Marx, and Levi-Strauss were direct rebellions against the culture and demands of a Gentile-dominated Europe.

National Book Award finalist (Philosophy), 1975.

Freud and Beyond: A History of Modern Psychoanalytic Thought

Published by Basic Books in 1996.

(2x .epub – 1996 & 2016 editions)

Freud’s concepts have become a part of our psychological vocabulary: unconscious thoughts and feelings, conflict, the meaning of dreams, the sensuality of childhood. But psychoanalytic thinking has undergone an enormous expansion and transformation over the past fifty years. With Freud and Beyond, Stephen A. Mitchell and Margaret J. Black make contemporary psychoanalytic thinking—the body of work that has been done since Freud—available for the first time. Richly illustrated with case examples, this lively, jargon-free introduction makes modern psychoanalytic thought accessible at last.

‘Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow and the Feeling Brain’ by Antonio Damasio

(.epub & .pdf)

Joy, sorrow, jealousy, and awe—these and other feelings are the stuff of our daily lives. In the seventeenth century, the philosopher Spinoza devoted much of his life’s work examining how these emotions supported human survival, yet hundreds of years later the biological roots of what we feel remain a mystery. Leading neuroscientist Antonio Damasio—whose earlier books explore rational behavior and the notion of the self—rediscovers a man whose work ran counter to all the thinking of his day, pairing Spinoza’s insights with his own innovative scientific research to help us understand what we’re made of, and what we’re here for.

‘An Event, Perhaps: A Biography of Jacques Derrida’ by Peter Salmon

Published by Verso in 2020.


Who is Jacques Derrida? For some, he is the originator of a relativist philosophy responsible for the contemporary crisis of truth. For the far right, he is one of the architects of Cultural Marxism. To his academic critics, he reduced French philosophy to “little more than an object of ridicule.” For his fans, he is an intellectual rock star who ranged across literature, politics, and linguistics. In An Event, Perhaps, Peter Salmon presents this misunderstood and misappropriated figure as a deeply humane and urgent thinker for our times.

Born in Algiers, the young Jackie was always an outsider. Despite his best efforts, he found it difficult to establish himself among the Paris intellectual milieu of the 1960s. However, in 1967, he changed the whole course of philosophy: outlining the central concepts of deconstruction. Immediately, his reputation as a complex and confounding thinker was established. Feted by some, abhorred by others, Derrida had an exhaustive breadth of interests but, as Salmon shows, was moved by a profound desire to understand how we engage with each other. It is a theme explored through Derrida’s intimate relationships with writers sucheven as Althusser, Genet, Lacan, Foucault, Cixous, and Kristeva.

Accessible, provocative and beautifully written, An Event, Perhaps will introduce a new readership to the life and work of a philosopher whose influence over the way we think will continue long into the twenty-first century.

The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud

Published by Modern Library in 2012.


This classic edition of The Basic Writings of Sigmund Freud includes complete texts of six works that have profoundly influenced our understanding of human behavior, presented here in the translation by Dr. A. A. Brill, who for almost forty years was the standard-bearer of Freudian theories in America.

• Psychopathology of Everyday Life is perhaps the most accessible of Freud’s books. An intriguing introduction to psychoanalysis, it shows how subconscious motives underlie even the most ordinary mistakes we make in talking, writing, and remembering.
• The Interpretation of Dreams records Freud’s revolutionary inquiry into the meaning of dreams and the power of the unconscious.
• Three Contributions to the Theory of Sex is the seminal work in which Freud traces the development of sexual instinct in humans from infancy to maturity.

• Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious expands on the theories Freud set forth in The Interpretation of Dreams. It demonstrates how all forms of humor attest to the fundamental orderliness of the human mind.

• Totem and Taboo extends Freud’s analysis of the individual psyche to society and culture.

• The History of Psychoanalytic Movement makes clear the ultimate incompatibility of Freud’s ideas with those of his onetime followers Adler and Jung.

‘Becoming Freud: The Making of a Psychoanalyst’ by Adam Phillips

(.pdf, .epub)

Becoming Freud is the story of the young Freud—Freud up until the age of fifty—that incorporates all of Freud’s many misgivings about the art of biography. Freud invented a psychological treatment that involved the telling and revising of life stories, but he was himself skeptical of the writing of such stories. In this biography, Adam Phillips, whom the New Yorker calls “Britain’s foremost psychoanalytical writer,” emphasizes the largely and inevitably undocumented story of Freud’s earliest years as the oldest—and favored—son of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe and suggests that the psychoanalysis Freud invented was, among many other things, a psychology of the immigrant—increasingly, of course, everybody’s status in the modern world.
Psychoanalysis was also Freud’s way of coming to terms with the fate of the Jews in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. So as well as incorporating the writings of Freud and his contemporaries, Becoming Freud also uses the work of historians of the Jews in Europe in this significant period in their lives, a period of unprecedented political freedom and mounting persecution. Phillips concludes by speculating what psychoanalysis might have become if Freud had died in 1906, before the emergence of a psychoanalytic movement over which he had to preside.

‘Corporate Rule of Cyberspace’ by Slavoj Žižek

Text published on Inside Higher Ed in May 2, 2011.

Part of the global push towards the privatization of the “general intellect” is the recent trend in the organization of cyberspace towards so-called “cloud computing.” Little more than a decade ago, a computer was a big box on one’s desk, and downloading was done with floppy disks and USB sticks. Today, we no longer need such cumbersome individual computers, since cloud computing is Internet-based, i.e., software and information are provided to computers or smartphones on demand, in the guise of web-based tools or applications that users can access and use through browsers as if they were programs installed on their own computer. In this way, we can access information from wherever we are in the world, on any computer, with smartphones literally putting this access into our pocket.

We already participate in cloud computing when we run searches and get millions of results in a fraction of a second — the search process is performed by thousands of connected computers sharing resources in the cloud. Similarly, Google Books makes millions of digitized works available any time, anywhere around the world. Not to mention the new level of socialization opened up by smartphones: today a smartphone will typically include a more powerful processor than that of the standard big box PC of only a couple of years ago. Plus it is connected to the Internet, so that I can not only access multiple programs and immense amounts of data, but also instantly exchange voice messages or video clips, and coordinate collective decisions, etc.

This wonderful new world, however, represents only one side of the story, which as a whole reads like the well-known doctor joke: “first the good news, then the bad news.” Users today access programs and software maintained far away in climate-controlled rooms housing thousands of computers. To quote from a propaganda-text on cloud computing: “Details are abstracted from consumers, who no longer have need for expertise in, or control over, the technology infrastructure ‘in the cloud’ that supports them.”

There are two tell-tale words here: abstraction and control. In order to manage a cloud, there needs to be a monitoring system which controls its functioning, a system which is by definition hidden from the end-user. The paradox is thus that, as the new gadget (smartphone or tiny portable) I hold in my hand becomes increasingly personalized, easy to use, “transparent” in its functioning, the more the entire set-up has to rely on the work being done elsewhere, on the vast circuit of machines which coordinate the user’s experience. In other words, for the user experience to become more personalized or non-alienated, it has to be regulated and controlled by an alienated network.

This, of course, holds for any complex technology: a TV viewer typically will have no idea how his remote control works, for example. However, the additional twist here is that it is not just the core technology, but also the choice and accessibility of content which are now controlled. That is to say, the formation of “clouds” is accompanied by a process of vertical integration: a single company or corporation will increasingly have a stake at all levels of the cyberworld, from individual machines (PCs, iPhones, etc.) and the “cloud” hardware for program and data storage, to software in all its forms (audio, video, etc.).

Everything thus becomes accessible, but only as mediated through a company which owns it all — software and hardware, content and computers. To take one obvious example, Apple doesn’t only sell iPhones and iPads, it also owns iTunes. It also recently made a deal with Rupert Murdoch allowing the news on the Apple cloud to be supplied by Murdoch’s media empire. To put it simply, Steve Jobs is no better than Bill Gates: whether it be Apple or Microsoft, global access is increasingly grounded in the virtually monopolistic privatization of the cloud which provides this access. The more an individual user is given access to universal public space, the more that space is privatized.

Apologists present cloud computing as the next logical step in the “natural evolution” of the Internet, and while in an abstract-technological way this is true, there is nothing “natural” in the progressive privatization of global cyberspace. There is nothing “natural” in the fact that two or three companies in a quasi-monopolistic position can not only set prices at will but also filter the software they provide to give its “universality” a particular twist depending on commercial and ideological interests.

True, cloud computing offers individual users an unprecedented wealth of choice — but is this freedom of choice not sustained by the initial choice of a provider, in respect to which we have less and less freedom? Partisans of openness like to criticize China for its attempt to control internet access — but are we not all becoming involved in something comparable, insofar as our “cloud” functions in a way not dissimilar to the Chinese state?

‘Stories from the City of God: Sketches and Chronicles of Rome’ by Píer Paolo Pasolini

Published by Other Press (Reprint Edition) in 2019. Download link updated on 26th July 2021.


Stories From the City of God collects legendary filmmaker Pier Paolo Pasolini’s short fiction and nonfiction from 1950 to 1966. In these pieces, we see the machinations of the creative mind in consideration of the character of Rome after World War II.

Presenting a portrait of the city that is at once poignant and intimate, as honest as if it were the author’s journal, we find here artistic witness to the customs, dialect, squalor, and beauty of the ancient imperial capital that has succumbed to modern warfare, marginalization, and mass culture.

The sketches portray the impoverished masses that he calls “the sub-proletariat”, those who live under Third World conditions and for whom simple pleasures, such as a blue sweater in a storefront window, are completely out of reach. In the chronicles, Pasolini faithfully renders life in Rome in the infinite stretches of public housing on the periphery of the city.

Pasolini’s art develops throughout the works collected here, from his early lyricism to tragicomic outlines for screenplays, and finally to the maturation of his Neo-realism in eight chronicles on the shantytowns of Rome. The pieces in this collection were all published in Italian journals and newspapapers, and then later edited by Walter Siti in the original Italian edition. Marina Harss of The New Yorker has translated the work for its first publication in English by Other Press.

‘Lord and Bondsman on the Couch’ by Mladen Dolar

Published in American Journal of Semiotics 9 (2/3):69-90 in 1992. Download link updated on 26. June 2021.


There is perhaps no other passage in the history of philosophy which has met with such a delirium of interpretations and so much scrutiny as the couple of pages where Hegel deals with the dialectic of lord and bondsman. The passage presents a scene which is both spectacular and overladen with metaphysical hidden meanings and consequences. It has often served mistakenly so—as a touchstone of the Hegelian enterprise as a whole, a clue to his project. Can the Lacanian reading, with this abundance of conflicting views where everything seems to have been said, all the approaches already tried, significantly add to the delirium?

Mladen Dolar is Professor and Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana since 1982 and has served as the Advising Researcher in Theory at the Jan Van Eyck Academie in Maastricht, Netherlands. He is also Professor of Philosophy at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. His principal areas of research are Psychoanalysis, Modern French Philosophy (Lacan, Foucault, Derrida, Badiou, et. al.), German Idealism, and Art Theory, especially Musicology. With Žižek and others, Dolar was the co-founder of the Ljubljana Society of Theoretical Psychoanalysis, whose main aim is to read late 18th cent. and early 19th cent. German Classical Philosophy through the frame of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory. His main field of expertise is the philosophy of Georg W. F. Hegel, on whom he has written several papers, including a two-volume interpretation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit first published in Slovene between 1990 and 1991. Dolar has lectured extensively across many different Universities in Europe and the United States and is author of hundreds of papers in different scholarly journals and in various collected volumes. Apart from over twelve monograph publications in Slovene, his books published in English most notably include A Voice and Nothing More and Opera’s Second Death, both of which were translated into several languages. His new book The Riskiest Moment is forthcoming with Duke University Press.

‘Creation and Anarchy: The Work of Art and the Religion of Capitalism’ by Giorgio Agamben


Creation and the giving of orders are closely entwined in Western culture, where God commands the world into existence and later issues the injunctions known as the Ten Commandments. The arche, or origin, is always also a command, and a beginning is always the first principle that governs and decrees. This is as true for theology, where God not only creates the world but governs and continues to govern through continuous creation, as it is for the philosophical and political tradition according to which beginning and creation, command and will, together form a strategic apparatus without which our society would fall apart.

The five essays collected here aim to deactivate this apparatus through a patient archaeological inquiry into the concepts of work, creation, and command. Giorgio Agamben explores every nuance of the arche in search of an an-archic exit strategy. By the book’s final chapter, anarchy appears as the secret center of power, brought to light so as to make possible a philosophical thought that might overthrow both the principle and its command.

Giorgio Agamben is a contemporary Italian philosopher and political theorist whose works have been translated into numerous languages. His most recent title with Stanford University Press is What Is Real? (2018).

‘Heidegger’s Fascist Affinities: A Politics of Silence’ by Adam Knowles

Published by Stanford University Press in 2019. Download link updated on 28. June 2021.


Reexamining the case of one of the most famous intellectuals to embrace fascism, this book argues that Martin Heidegger’s politics and philosophy of language emerge from a deep affinity for the ethno-nationalist and anti-Semitic politics of the Nazi movement.

Himself a product of a conservative milieu, Heidegger did not have to significantly compromise his thinking to adapt it to National Socialism but only to intensify certain themes within it. Tracing the continuity of these themes in his lectures on Greek philosophy, his magnum opus, Being and Time, and the notorious Black Notebooks that have only begun to see the light of day, Heidegger’s Fascist Affinities argues that if Heidegger was able to align himself so thoroughly with Nazism, it was partly because his philosophy was predicated upon fundamental forms of silencing and exclusion.

With the arrival of the Nazi revolution, Heidegger displayed—both in public and in private—a complex, protracted form of silence drawn from his philosophy of language. Avoiding the easy satisfaction of banishing Heidegger from the philosophical realm so indebted to his work, Adam Knowles asks whether what drove Heidegger to Nazism in the first place might continue to haunt the discipline. In the context of today’s burgeoning ethno-nationalist regimes, can contemporary philosophy ensure itself of its immunity?

Adam Knowles is Assistant Teaching Professor of Philosophy at Drexel University.

‘Freud and the Sexual’ by Jean Laplanche

Published by The Unconscious in Translation in 2011.


Freud and the Sexual is the translation of Laplanche’s Sexual: La sexualité élargie au sens freudien, his work from 2000 to 2006. Clear and direct, often witty, this volume is a pleasure to read and represents the culmination of his work.

Table of Contents:

1. Drive and Instinct distinctions, oppositions, supports and intertwinings
2. Sexuality and Attachment in Meta psychology
3. Dream and Communication; should chapter VII be rewritten?
4. Countercurrent
5. Starting from the Fundamental Anthropological Situation
6. Failures of Translation
7. Displacement and Condensation in Freud
8. Sexual Crime
9. Gender, Sex and the Sexual
10. Three Meanings of the Term ‘Unconscious’ in the Framework of the General Theory of Seduction
11. For Psychoanalysis at the University
12. Intervention in a Debate
13. Levels of Proof
14. The Three Essays and the Theory of Seduction
15. Freud and Philosophy
16. In Debate with Freud
17. Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy
18. Incest and Infantile Sexuality
19. Castration and Oedipus as Codes and Narrative Schema

Jean Laplanche (1924 – 2012) was described by the journal Radical Philosophy as “the most original and philosophically informed psychoanalytic theorist of his day.” Studying philosophy under Hyppolite, Bachelard, and Merleau-Ponty, he became an active member of the French Resistance under the Vichy regime. Under the influence (and treatment) of Jacques Lacan, Laplanche came to earn a doctorate in medicine and was certified as a psychoanalyst. He eventually broke ties with Lacan and began regularly publishing influential contributions to psychoanalytic theory, his first volume appearing in 1961. In 1967 he published, with his colleague J.-B. Pontalis, the celebrated encyclopaedia The Language of Psychoanalysis. A member of the International Psychoanalytical Association, co-founder of the Association Psychanalytique de France, emeritus professor and founder of the Center for Psychoanalytic Research at the Université de Paris VII, and assistant professor at the Sorbonne, he also oversaw, as scientific director, the translation of Freud’s complete oeuvre into French for the Presses Universitaires de France.

‘Ontology and Sexual Difference Conference’ by Slavoj Žižek, Mladen Dolar & Alenka Zupančič

Princeton 2015

When a philosopher deals with another philosopher or philosophy, his or her stance is never one of dialogue, but always one of division, of drawing the line that separates truth from falsity – from Plato whose focus is the line that divides truth from mere opinion, up to Lenin who is obsessed with the line that separates materialism from idealism. The course will be an exercise in this art of delimitation: its aim is to specify the contours of the dialectical-materialist notion of negativity by way of drawing a line that separates it from other forms of the thought of negativity, from Julia Kristeva’s abjection to Robert Pippin’s self-consciousness, from Catherine Malabou’s plasticity to the god of negative theology, from object-oriented-ontology to the topic of post-humanity.

These are low-quality recordings from the event which I’ve found online. You can find more info about the event on Princeton University’s website, since I’m only making four recordings from a longer event available here.

April 1st 2015
Slavoj Žižek
A critique of object-oriented-ontology and New Materialism


April 13th 2015
Slavoj Žižek
Do we live in end times? A critique of millenarist reason


April 15th 2015
Ontology and Sexual Difference Colloquium

Slavoj Žižek & Alenka Zupančič


Mladen Dolar



Jacques Lacan, ANXIETY (Seminar, Book X), Polity Press 2014
Slavoj Žižek, ABSOLUTE RECOIL, Verso Books 2014, Chapters 1.1 and 1.3
Levi Bryant, DEMOCRACY OF OBJECTS (available online)

Mladen Dolar is Professor and Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana since 1982 and has served as the Advising Researcher in Theory at the Jan Van Eyck Academie in Maastricht, Netherlands. He is also Professor of Philosophy at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. His principal areas of research are Psychoanalysis, Modern French Philosophy (Lacan, Foucault, Derrida, Badiou, et. al.), German Idealism, and Art Theory, especially Musicology. With Žižek and others, Dolar was the co-founder of the Ljubljana Society of Theoretical Psychoanalysis, whose main aim is to read late 18th cent. and early 19th cent. German Classical Philosophy through the frame of Lacanian psychoanalytic theory. His main field of expertise is the philosophy of Georg W. F. Hegel, on whom he has written several papers, including a two-volume interpretation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit first published in Slovene between 1990 and 1991. Dolar has lectured extensively across many different Universities in Europe and the United States and is author of hundreds of papers in different scholarly journals and in various collected volumes. Apart from over twelve monograph publications in Slovene, his books published in English most notably include A Voice and Nothing More and Opera’s Second Death, both of which were translated into several languages. His new book The Riskiest Moment is forthcoming with Duke University Press.

Alenka Zupančič is a Slovene philosopher and psychoanalytic social theorist. She works as Senior Researcher at the Graduate School of Philosophy, Scientific Research Center for the Slovene Academy of Arts and Sciences (ZRC SAZU) in Ljubljana, Slovenia. She is also Professor of Philosophy at the European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. She is the author of numerous articles and books on psychoanalysis and philosophy, including What is Sex?Why Psychoanalysis?, The Odd One In: On ComedyThe Shortest Shadow: Nietzsche’s Philosophy of the Two and Ethics of the Real: Kant and Lacan. Her books have been translated into many languages.

Slavoj Žižek is a Philosopher and psychoanalytic social theorist. He is Senior Researcher at the Department of Philosophy, University of Ljubljana; Professor at the School of Law and Director of the Institute for the Humanities at Birkbeck, University of London; Distinguished Scholar at the Kyung Hee University, Seoul; and Visiting Professor at the German Department, New York University. His field of work comprises Lacanian psychoanalytic theory, dialectical-materialist metaphysical interpretations of German Idealism and Marxian critique of ideology. His more than sixty books in English have been widely translated. His latest publications include Pandemic! & Pandemic! 2, Hegel in a Wired Brain, Sex and the Failed Absolute, Like A Thief In Broad DaylightReading MarxIncontinence of the Void, and The Day After the Revolution.

‘Sarajevo: State in Time | A story of Laibach & NSK’ by Benjamin Jung, Théo Meurisse


Besieged Sarajevo, 1995.

The inhabitants have now been living under the siege for three years and their daily life has become a nightmare due to the shellfire and the snipers.

While many are joining the fights, another form of resistance is rising: culture allows people to claim their humanity. While listening to a concert, watching a play or a film, people forget the isolation, the noise of the bombs and starvation.

In this atmosphere of humanitarian and artistic emergency, the industrial punk band Laibach and the artists of NSK (“Neue Slowenische Kunst”, New Slovenian Art) traveled across burning ex-Yugoslavia to Sarajevo to proclaim the city as a territory of the NSK State in Time. They performed two shows, brought art exhibitions and gave away passports that helped the locals to get through the blockade imposed on the city.

SARAJEVO: STATE IN TIME gives the floor to those who wrote this history and those who experienced the event, considered as one of the most important of the siege.

Profoundly European and drawing a parallel with the recent struggles the continent is experiencing, the film shows the power of cultural resistance against violence, nationalism and war.

‘Civilization and Its Discontents’ & ‘Totem and Taboo’

This audiobook edition published by Ukemi Audiobooks in 2019 and read by Martyn Swain.


Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) is remembered as the father of psychoanalysis. Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) is one of his key works. In it he considers the conflict between the needs of the individual acting both egotistically and altruistically in the pursuit of happiness and the myriad demands of civilised society and the ensuing tensions this clash of needs and demands generates.

Consequently it remains a key text for anyone wishing to understand the breadth and depth of Freud’s thinking on the human condition. His analysis of the modern human’s situation, forced to repress and sublimate innate natural, sexual drives in order to satisfy society’s seemingly endless requirements, and the conflicts and consequences for mental health inherent in this, make it as relevant today as when it was written. 

In Totem and Taboo (1913) Freud made what he called a first attempt at explaining problems of racial psychology and addressing neurotic symptoms as mental and emotional maladjustments to experience and environment. He hoped thereby to deepen the understanding of the mind by investigating its manifestations in primitive, noncivilised humans as documented by a range of writers and investigators in the scientific disciplines of sociology, anthropology and psychology.

The work consists of four essays. This essential text is an ambitious undertaking because in it Freud seeks to unravel the mysteries of myth and religion by investigating the nature and qualities of sacrifice and the sacred, the primal myth and the parts these play in the generation of prohibitions, transgressions, guilt experience and expiation, as states and processes.

Freud delves into the work of the great minds of his day, engaging with J. G. Frazer’s The Golden Bough and Totemism and Exogamy, Reinach’s Code du Totemisme, W. Wundt’s Elements of the Psychology of Race and a host of others.

He considers the nominalistic, sociological and psychological theories they postulated. This was the investigation that led him to conclude that ‘the beginnings of religion, ethics, society and art meet in the Oedipus complex’. This work would accelerate the split with his longtime colleague C. J. Jung, partly as result of the states and processes he identifies in primitive religions, belief systems and thought processes which he traces from the earliest times through Greek tragedy and medieval Passion plays up to the 20th century. This led him to articulate the importance of the interplay of the individual psyche with the psyche of the mass, as well as to develop the notion of intergenerational psychic continuity and the linked processes of thinking, doing and inhibition. This would later be refined in Civilization and Its Discontents

Civilization and Its Discontents is translated by Joan Riviere. Totem and Taboo is translated by A. A. Brill.

‘Group Psychology And The Analysis Of The Ego’ by Sigmund Freud | AudioBook

This audiobook edition published by Partner Audio LLC in 2019 and read by Steven Crossley.


In Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego, Freud examines phenomena such as the herd instinct, the occurrence of what he terms “artificial” groups including the church and the army, and the role of the libido in groups. The question he addresses here is, What are the emotional bonds that hold collective entities, such as an army and a church, together? It is a fruitful question, and Freud offers some interesting answers. But Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego stands chiefly as an invitation to further psychoanalytic exploration. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego by Sigmund Freud was first published in 1921 in German as Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse.

This audiobook is based on the authorized English translation by James Strachey which was published a year later in 1922. All of Freud’s footnotes have been retained and inserted in the main text. The translator’s footnotes which related primarily to word choice and translation decisions have not been included. A translator’s note to the print edition states that all technical terms have been translated in accordance with the glossary to be published as a supplement to the International Journal of Psycho-Analysis.

Please note: Freud made some slight changes and additions in the later editions of this work, and the translator made a considerably altered version of the translation on or about 1940.

Slavoj Žižek: ‘Moebius Strip, Crosscap, Klein Bottle: The Twisted Space of Subjectivity’ | October 20, 2017

In a talk prepared for the LACK II Conference at Colorado College the philosopher Slavoj Žižek delivered a talk on the Moebius Strip, the Crosscap and the Klein Bottle, which are topologic shapes taken from Lacanian theory and developed also in his works, most notably in his theoretical work Sex and the Failed Absolute published by Bloomsbury Academic in 2019.

‘German Philosophy 1760-1860: The Legacy of Idealism’ by Terry Pinkard

Published by Cambridge University Press in 2002. Download link updated on 24. June 2021.

(.pdf & .epub)

In the second half of the eighteenth century, German philosophy dominated European philosophy, changing the way Europeans and people all over the world conceived of themselves and thought about nature, religion, human history, politics, and the structure of the human mind. In this rich and wide-ranging book, Terry Pinkard interweaves the story of “Germany”—changing during this period from a loose collection of principalities into a newly-emerged nation with a distinctive culture–with an examination of the currents and complexities of its developing philosophical thought. He examines the dominant influence of Kant, with his revolutionary emphasis on “self-determination,” and traces this influence through the development of romanticism and idealism to the critiques of post-Kantian thinkers such as Schopenhauer and Kierkegaard. His book will interest a range of readers in the history of philosophy, cultural history and the history of ideas.

Terry Pinkard is professor of Philosophy at Northwestern University and is the author of the acclaimed Hegel: A Biography (Cambridge, 2000). He is honorary Professor of the Philosophy Faculty of TÜbingen University, Germany and serves on the advisory board for the Zeitschrift fÜr Philosophique Forschung.

‘Hegel: A Biography’ by Terry Pinkard

Published by Cambridge University Press in 2011.


One of the founders of modern philosophical thought Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770–1831) has gained the reputation of being one of the most abstruse and impenetrable of thinkers. This major biography of Hegel offers not only a complete account of the life, but also a perspicuous overview of the key philosophical concepts in Hegel’s work in a style that will be accessible to professionals and non-professionals alike. Terry Pinkard situates Hegel firmly in the historical context of his times. The story of that life is of an ambitious, powerful thinker living in a period of great tumult dominated by the figure of Napoleon. The Hegel who emerges from this account is a complex, fascinating figure of European modernity, who offers us a still compelling examination of that new world born out of the political, industrial, social, and scientific revolutions of his period.

‘Hegel’s Phenomenology: The Sociality of Reason‘ by Terry Pinkard

Published by Cambridge University Press in 2008.


This book develops an independent philosophical account of the general theory of knowledge, culture, and history contained in it. Written in a clear and straightforward style, the book reconstructs Hegel’s theoretical philosophy and shows its connection to the ethical and political theory. Terry Pinkard sets the work in a historical context and reveals the contemporary relevance of Hegel’s thought to European and Anglo-American philosophers.

‘Hegel’s Dialectic: The Explanation of Possibility’ by Terry Pinkard

Published by Temple University Press in 1988.


Hegel is one of the most often cited and least read of all major philosophers. He is alternately regarded as the best and the worst that philosophy has produced. Nobody, however, disputes his influence. In Hegel’s Dialectic, Terry Pinkard offers a new interpretation of Hegel’s program that assesses his conception of the role of philosophy, his method, and some of the specific theses that he defended. Hegel’s dialectic is interpreted as offering explanations of the possibility of basic categories. Pinkard argues that the traditional standard reading of Hegel as the esoteric metaphysician of Absolute Spirit overlooks major elements of his thought. In presenting this alternative reading of Hegel, Pinkard offers a new understanding of the role of history in Hegel’s thought and a new perspective on his moral and political thought. Departing from the tradition of explicating Hegel exclusively in Hegelian terms, Pinkard discusses the much disputed philosopher in a way that is accessible and appealing to both analytic and non-analytic philosophers. Hegel’s Dialectic is not just an interpretation of Hegel’s thought: it is also a reconstruction and defense of Hegel’s philosophy as having something of importance to say to late twentieth-century philosophers.

The History of Continental Philosophy edited by Alan D. Schrift | 8 Volumes

Published by University of Chicago Press in 2010. Link updated on 30. June 2021.


From Kant to Heidegger, from Hegel to Kierkegaard, continental philosophers have indelibly shaped the trajectory of Western thought since the eighteenth century. Although much has been written about these monumental thinkers, students and scholars have so far apparently somehow completely lacked an updated encyclopedic history to the entire scope of the continental tradition.

This eight-volume History of Continental Philosophy begins with an overview of Kant’s philosophy and its initial reception, gets stuck here and honestly philosophically actually doesn’t move anywhere on from this spot, and traces the development of philosophy through major figures as well as movements such as existentialism, phenomenology, hermeneutics, and poststructuralism and still manages to pretend Hegel never existed while explicitly mentioning his name at the very outset of this abstract.

This collection examines philosophical figures and developments in their historical, political, and cultural contexts and unfortunately completely fails to reflect on the nature of the continental and analytic philosophical divide, while explicitly claiming to survey the distinctive, sometimes overlapping characteristics and approaches of each tradition. You’re probably better off reading actual philosophical works themselves.


Volume 1: Kant, Kantianism, and Idealism: The Origins of Continental Philosophy
Edited by Thomas Nenon
Introduction, Thomas Nenon
1. Immanuel Kant’s Turn to Transcendental Philosophy, Thomas Nenon
2. Kant’s Early Critics: Jacobi, Reinhold, Maimon, Richard Fincham
3. Johann Gottfried Herder, Sonia Sikka
4. Play and Irony: Schiller and Schlegel on the Liberating Prospects of Aesthetics, Daniel Dahlstrom
5. Fichte and Husserl: Life-world, the Other, and Philosophical Reflection, Robert R. Williams
6. Schelling: Philosopher of Tragic Dissonance, Joseph P. Lawrence
7. Schopenhauer on Empirical and Aesthetic Perception and Cognition, Bart Vandenabeele
8. G.W.F. Hegel, Terry Pinkard
9. From Hegelian Reason to the Marxian Revolution, 1831-48, Lawrence S. Stepelevich
10. Saint-Simon, Fourier, and Proudhon: “Utopian,” French Socialism, Diane Morgan

Volume 2: Nineteenth-Century Philosophy: Revolutionary Responses to the Existing Order
Edited by Alan D. Schrift and Daniel Conway

Introduction, Daniel Conway
1. Feuerbach and the Left and Right Hegelians, William Clare Roberts
2. Marx and Marxism, Terrell Carver
3. Søren Kierkegaard, Alastair Hannay
4. Dostoevsky and Russian Philosophy, Evgenia Cherkasova
5. Life after the Death of God: Thus Spoke Nietzsche, Daniel Conway
6. Hermeneutics: Schleiermacher and Dilthey, Eric Sean Nelson
7. French Spiritualish Philosophy, F.C.T. Moore
8. The Emergence of Sociology and its Theories: From Comte to Weber, Alan Sica
9. Developments in Philosophy of Science and Mathematics, Dale Jacquette
10. Peirce: Pragmatism and Nature after Hegel, Douglas R. Anderson
11. Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art, 1840-1900, Gary Shapiro 

Volume 3: The New Century: Bergsonism, Phenomenology and Responses to Modern Science
Edited by Keith Ansell-Pearson and Alan D. Schrift

Introduction, Keith Ansell-Pearson
1. Henri Bergson, John Mullarkey
2. Neo-Kantianism in Germany and France, Sebastian Luft and Fabien Capeillères
3. The Emergence of French Sociology: Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss, Mike Gane
4. Analytic and Continental Traditions: Frege, Husserl, Carnap, and Heidegger, Michael Friedman and Thomas Ryckman
5. Edmund Husserl, Thomas Nenon
6. Max Scheler, Dan Zahavi
7. The Early Heidegger, Miguel de Beistegui
8. Karl Jaspers, Leonard H. Ehrlich
9. Phenomenology at Home and Abroad, Diane Perpich
10. Early Continental Philosophy of Science, Babette Babich
11. Ludwig Wittgenstein, John Fennell and Bob Plant
12. Freud and Continental Philosophy, Adrian Johnston
13. Responses to Evolution: Spencer’s Evolutionism, Bergsonism, and Contemporary Biology, Keith Ansell-Pearson, Paul-Antoine Miquel and Michael Vaughan

Volume 4: Phenomenology: Responses and Developments
Edited by Leonard Lawlor
Introduction, Leonard Lawlor
1. Dialectic, Difference and the Other: The Hegelianizing of French Phenomenology, John Russon
2. Existentialism, S. K. Keltner and Samuel J. Julian
3. Sartre and Phenomenology, William L. McBride
4. Continental Aesthetics: Phenomenology and Antiphenomenology, Galen A. Johnson
5. Merleau-Ponty at the Limits of Phenomenology, Mauro Carbone
6. The Hermeneutic Transformation of Phenomenology, Daniel L. Tate
7. The Later Heidegger, Dennis Schmidt
8. Existential Theology, Andreas Grossmann
9. Religion and Ethics, Felix Ó Murchadha
10. The Philosophy of the Concept, Pierre Cassou-Noguès
11. Analytic Philosophy and Continental Philosophy: Four Confrontations, Dermot Moran

Volume 5: Critical Theory to Structuralism: Philosophy, Politics and the Human Sciences
Edited by David Ingram
Introduction, David Ingram
1. Carl Schmitt and Early Western Marxism, Christopher Thornhill
2. The Origins and Development of the Model of Early Critical Theory in the Work of Max Horkheimer, Erich Fromm, and Herbert Marcuse, John Abromeit
3. Theodor Adorno, Deborah Cook
4. Walter Benjamin, James McFarland
5. Hannah Arendt: Rethinking the Political, Peg Birmingham
6. Georges Bataille, Peter Tracey Connor
7. French Marxism in its Heyday, William McBride
8. Black Existentialism, Lewis R. Gordon
9. Ferdinand de Saussure and Linguistic Structuralism, Thomas F. Broden
10. Claude Lévi-Strauss, Brian C. J. Singer
11. Jacques Lacan, Ed Pluth
12. Late Pragmatism, Logical Positivism, and their Aftermath, David Ingram

Volume 6: Poststructuralism and Critical Theory’s Second Generation
Edited by Alan D. Schrift
Introduction, Alan D. Schrift
1. French Nietzscheanism, Alan D. Schrift
2. Louis Althusser, Warren Montag
3. Michel Foucault, Timothy O’Leary
4. Gilles Deleuze, Daniel W. Smith
5. Jacques Derrida, Samir Haddad
6. Jean-François Lyotard, James Williams
7. Pierre Bourdieu and the Practice of Philosophy, Derek Robbins
8. Michel Serres, David F. Bell
9. Jürgen Habermas, Christopher F. Zurn
10. Second Generation Critical Theory, James Swindal
11. Gadamer, Ricoeur, and the Legacy of Phenomenology, Wayne J. Froman
12. The Linguistic Turn in Continental Philosophy, Claire Colebrook
13. Psychoanalysis and Desire, Rosi Braidotti and Alan D. Schrift
14. Luce Irigaray, Mary Beth Mader
15. Cixous, Kristeva, and Le Dœuff: Three “French Feminists,” Sara Heinämaa
16. Deconstruction and the Yale School of Literary Theory, Jeffrey T. Nealon
17. Rorty Among the Continentals, David R. Hiley

Volume 7: After Poststructuralism: Transitions and Transformations
Edited by Rosi Braidotti
Introduction, Rosi Braidotti
1. Postmodernism, Simon Malpas
2. German Philosophy after 1980: Themes Out of School, Dieter Thomä
3. The Structuralist Legacy, Patrice Maniglier
4. Italian Philosophy Between 1980 and 1995, Silvia Benso and Brian Schroeder
5. Continental Philosophy in the Czech Republic, Josef Fulka, Jr.
6. Third Generation Critical Theory: Benhabib, Fraser, and Honneth, Amy Allen
7. French and Italian Spinozism, Simon Duffy
8. Radical Democracy, Lasse Thomassen
9. Cultural and Postcolonial Studies, Iain Chambers
10. The “Ethical Turn” in Continental Philosophy in the 1980s, Robert Eaglestone
11. Feminist Philosophy: Coming of Age, Rosi Braidotti
12. Continental Philosophy of Religion, Bruce Ellis Benson
13. The Performative Turn and the Emergence of Post-Analytic Philosophy, José Medina
14. Out of Bounds: Philosophy in an Age of Transition, Judith Butler and Rosi Braidotti

Volume 8: Emerging Trends in Continental Philosophy
Edited by Todd May
Introduction, Todd May
1. Rethinking Gender: Judith Butler and Feminist Philosophy, Gayle Salamon
2. Recent Developments in Aesthetics: Badiou, Rancière, and Their Interlocutors, Gabriel Rockhill
3. Rethinking Marxism, Emily Zakin
4. Thinking the Event: Alain Badiou’s Philosophy and the Task of Critical Theory, Bruno Bosteels
5. Rethinking Anglo-American Philosophy: The Neo-Kantianism of Davidson, McDowell, and Brandom, John Fennell
6. Rethinking Science as Science Studies: Latour, Stengers, Prigogine, Dorothea Olkowski
7. European Citizenship: A Postnationalist Perspective, Rosi Braidotti
8. Postcolonialism, Postorientalism, Postoccidentalism: The Past That Never Went Away and the Future That Never Arrived, Eduardo Mendieta
9. Continental Philosophy and the Environment, Jonathan Maskit
10. Rethinking the New World Order: Responses to Globalization/American Hegemony, Todd May

‘Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel: The Phenomenology of Spirit’, translated by Terry Pinkard


Hegel’s The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) is one of the most influential texts in the history of modern philosophy. In it, Hegel proposed an arresting and novel picture of the relation of mind to world and of people to each other. Like Kant before him, Hegel offered up a systematic account of the nature of knowledge, the influence of society and history on claims to knowledge, and the social character of human agency itself. A bold new understanding of what, after Hegel, came to be called ‘subjectivity’ arose from this work, and it was instrumental in the formation of later philosophies, such as existentialism, Marxism, and American pragmatism, each of which reacted to Hegel’s radical claims in different ways. This edition offers a new translation, an introduction, and glossaries to assist readers’ understanding of this central text, and will be essential for scholars and students of Hegel.

Hegel, the letters / translated by Clark Butler and Christiane Seiler

Published by Butler & Seiler in 1984.


We have been living in a post-Hegelian and thus, in a sense, post-philosophical age since the middle of the last century. Comte then proclaimed the coming age of positive science to eclipse the previous metaphysical age, Kierkegaard publicly recorded the bankruptcy of reason, and Marx called for a revolutionary praxis to change the world in place of philosophies resigned merely to interpreting it. Then, on the European continent, it would seem Western culture lost its philosophical nerve-an event that has proved largely fateful for our century. American pragmatism and British analytic philosophy were twentieth-century reverberations of what had already occurred in the Continental nineteenth century. It is not accidental, however, that the decline of philosophy in the West coincided with that of the Hegelian school. For if Hegel persuaded his critics of anything, it was that he was a philosopher, i.e., that his philosophy was paradigmatic for philosophy generally. Yet the various post-Hegelianisms have failed to achieve consensus on just how to go beyond Hegel. The whole process by which in the last century Hegel was “transcended” is today being re-enacted slowly, examining each step along the way. This is surely one of the most important reasons for being interested in Hegel today. It is also an important reason for making his letters available in English. . .

‘Lectures on Logic’ by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Published by Indiana University Press in 2008. Download link updated on 25. June 2021.


Hegel gave many lectures in logic at Berlin University between 1818 and his untimely death in 1831. Edited posthumously by Hegel’s son, Karl, these lectures were published in German in 2001 and now appear in English in Clark Butler’s translation. Because they were delivered orally, Lectures on Logic is more approachable and colloquial than much of Hegel’s formal philosophy. The lectures provide important insight into Hegel’s science of logic, dialectical method, and symbolic logic. Readers at all levels will find a mature and particularly clear presentation of Hegel’s systematic philosophical vision.

‘Heidelberg Writings: Journal Publications‘ by Georg W. F. Hegel


This work brings together, for the first time in English translation, Hegel’s journal publications from his years in Heidelberg (1816-18), writings which have been previously either untranslated or only partially translated into English. The Heidelberg years marked Hegel’s return to university teaching and represented an important transition in his life and thought. The translated texts include his important reassessment of the works of the philosopher F. H. Jacobi, whose engagement with Spinozism, especially, was of decisive significance for the philosophical development of German Idealism. They also include his most influential writing about contemporary political events, his essay on the constitutional assembly in his native Württemberg, which was written against the background of the dramatic political and social changes occurring in post-Napoleonic Germany.

Notre Dame Philosophical Review: https://ndpr.nd.edu/news/heidelberg-writings-journal-publications/

Hegel’s Dialectic of Desire and Recognition: Texts and Commentary

Published by State University of New York Press in 1996.


Presents three generations of German, French, and Anglo-American thinking on the Hegelian narrative of desire, recognition, and alienation in life, labor, and language.

This book presents three generations of German, French, and Anglo-American thinking on the Hegelian narrative of desire, recognition, and alienation in life, labor, and language—a narrative that has been subject to extensive commentary in philosophy, literature, psychoanalysis, and feminist thought. The texts focus on a central topos in Western thought, the story of self-consciousness awakened in nature and in history. John O’Neill argues that current postmodern rejections of the Hegelian-Marxist narrative demand an understanding of the texts included here. Without Hegel and Marx in our toolbox, he argues, we will flounder in a world marked by the split between postmodern indifference and premodern passion.

The book makes a strong selection from the history of Hegelian-Marxist debate, hermeneutical and critical theory, and Freudian/Lacanian and feminist commentary on the dialectic of desire and recognition, on the levels of social psychology and political economy. Included are articles by Karl Marx, G. W. F. Hegel, Alexandre Kojève, Jean Hyppolite, Jean-Paul Sarte, Georg Lukács, Jürgen Habermas, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Howard Adelman, Shlomo Avineri, Jessica Benjamin, Edward S. Casey and J. Melvin Woody, Henry S. Harris, George Armstrong Kelly, Ludwig Siep, Judith N. Shklar, and Henry Sussman. The texts and commentaries show how the Hegelian-Maxist narrative of desire, recognition, and alienation is a contested story, one in which class, race, and gender issues are drawn into a historical romance that is being rewritten in contemporary cultural politics.

Table of Contents

Introduction: A Dialectical Genealogy of Self, Society, and Culture in and after Hegel
John O’Neill

Part I. Lordship and Bondage

1. Lordship and Bondage
G.W.F. Hegel

2. Critique of Hegel
Karl Marx

Part II. Desire and Recognition

3. Desire and Work in the Master and Slave
Alexandre Kojeve

4. Self-Consciousness and Life: The Independence of Self-Consciousness
Jean Hyppolite

5. The Existence of Others
Jean-Paul Sarte

Part III. Alienation and Recognition

6. Hegel’s Economics During the Jena Period
Georg Lukacs

7. Labor and Interaction: Remarks on Hegel’s Jena Philosophy of Mind
Jurgen Habermas

8. Hegel’s Dialectic of Self-Consciousness
Hans-Georg Gadamer

Part IV. Dialectics of Desire and Recognition

9. Of Human Bondage: Labor and Freedom in the Phenomenology
Howard Adelman

10. Labor, Alienation, and Social Classes in Hegel’s Realphilosophie
Shlomo Avineri

11. Master and Slave: The Bonds of Love
Jessica Benjamin

12. Hegel and Lacan: The Dialectic of Desire
Edward S. Casey and J. Melvin Woody

13. The Concept of Recognition in Hegel’s Jena Manuscripts
Henry S. Harris

14. Notes on Hegel’s “Lordship and Bondage”
George Armstrong Kelly

15. The Struggle for Recognition: Hegel’s Dispute with Hobbes in the Jena Writings
Ludwig Siep

16. Self-Sufficient Man: Dominion and Bondage
Judith N. Shklar

17. The Metaphor in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Mind
Henry Sussman


Hegel: Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion: One-Volume Edition, The Lectures of 1827


This one-volume abridged edition of Hegel’s Lectures on the Philosophy of Religion is intended for student and classroom use as well as for a wider readership. It reprints, from the three-volume critical edition (University of California Press, 1984, 1985, 1987), the complete text of Hegel’s lectures delivered in 1827. Of the three series of lectures on philosophy of religion that presently can be reconstructed, those of 1827 are the latest, the most clearly organized, and the most accessible to nonspecialists. Here for the first time a complete version of Hegel’s lectures on this topic is made available in a single volume and in a form corresponding to Hegel’s original presentation.

‘Introduction to the Reading of Hegel: Lectures on the Phenomenology of Spirit’ by Alexandre Kojève

Published by Cornell University Press in 1980.


During the years 1933–1939, the Russian-born and German-educated Marxist political philosopher Alexandre Kojève (1902–1968) brilliantly explicated―through a series of lectures―the philosophy of Hegel as it was developed in the Phenomenology of Spirit. This collection of lectures―originally compiled by Raymond Queneau and edited for its English-language translation by Allan Bloom―shows the intensity of Kojève’s study and thought and the depth of his insight into Hegel’s Phenomenology. More important―for Kojève was above all a philosopher and not an ideologue―this profound and venturesome work on Hegel will expose the readers to the excitement of discovering a great mind in all its force and power.

‘Genesis and Structure of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit’ by Jean Hyppolite

Published by Northwestern University Press in 1979.


Jean Hyppolite produced the first French translation of Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit. His major works–the translation, his commentary, and Logique et existence (1953)–coincided with an upsurge of interest in Hegel following World War II. Yet Hyppolite’s influence was as much due to his role as a teacher as it was to his translation or commentary: Foucault and Deleuze were introduced to Hegel in Hyppolite’s classes, and Derrida studied under him. More than fifty years after its original publication, Hyppolite’s analysis of Hegel continues to offer fresh insights to the reader.

‘Hegel: An Intellectual Biography’ by Horst Althaus

Published by Polity in 2000.


This accessible and highly readable book is the first full-length biography of Hegel to be published since the largely outdated treatments of the nineteenth century. Althaus draws on new historical material and scholarly sources about the life and times of this most enigmatic and influential of modern philosophers. He paints a living portrait of a thinker whose personality was more complex than is often imagined, and shows that Hegel’s relation to his revolutionary times was also more ambiguous than is usually accepted.

Althaus presents a broad chronological narrative of Hegel’s development from his early theological studies in Tübingen and the associated unpublished writings, profoundly critical of the established religious orthodoxies. He traces Hegel’s years of philosophical apprenticeship with Schelling in Jena as he struggled for an independent intellectual position, up to the crowning period of influence and success in Berlin where Hegel appeared as the advocate of the modern Prussian state. Althaus tells a vivid story of Hegel’s life and his intellectual and personal crises, drawing generously on the philosopher’s own words from his extensive correspondence. His central role in the cultural and political life of the time is illuminated by the impressions and responses of his contemporaries, such as Schelling, Schleiermacher and Goethe.

This panoramic introduction to Hegel’s life, work and times will be a valuable resource for scholars, students and anyone interested in this towering figure of philosophy.

‘The Hegel Dictionary’ by Glenn Alexander Magee

Published by Continuum in 2010.


The Hegel Dictionary is a comprehensive and accessible guide to the world of G.W.F. Hegel, one of the most important and influential thinkers in the history of philosophy. Meticulously researched and extensively cross-referenced, this unique book provides a firm grounding in the central themes of Hegel’s thought. Students will discover a wealth of useful information and analysis. A-Z entries include clear definitions of key terms used in Hegel’s writings and detailed synopses of his major works. The Dictionary also includes entries on Hegel’s philosophical influences, such as Kant, Fichte, and Schelling, and those he influenced, including Marx. It covers everything that is essential to a sound understanding of Hegel’s philosophy, offering clear and accessible explanations of often complex terminology. The Hegel Dictionary is the ideal resource for anyone reading or studying Hegel or Modern European Philosophy more generally.

Hegel and the Infinite: Religion, Politics, and Dialectic

Published by Columbia University Press in 2011.

(.pdf & .epub)

Catherine Malabou, Antonio Negri, John D. Caputo, Bruno Bosteels, Mark C. Taylor, and Slavoj Žižek join seven others―including William Desmond, Katrin Pahl, Adrian Johnston, Edith Wyschogrod, and Thomas A. Lewis―to apply Hegel’s thought to twenty-first-century philosophy, politics, and religion. Doing away with claims that the evolution of thought and history is at an end, these thinkers safeguard Hegel’s innovations against irrelevance and, importantly, reset the distinction of secular and sacred.

These original contributions focus on Hegelian analysis and the transformative value of the philosopher’s thought in relation to our current “turn to religion.” Malabou develops Hegel’s motif of confession in relation to forgiveness; Negri writes of Hegel’s philosophy of right; Caputo reaffirms the radical theology made possible by Hegel; and Bosteels critiques fashionable readings of the philosopher and argues against the reducibility of his dialectic. Taylor reclaims Hegel’s absolute as a process of infinite restlessness, and Zizek revisits the religious implications of Hegel’s concept of letting go. Mirroring the philosopher’s own trajectory, these essays progress dialectically through politics, theology, art, literature, philosophy, and science, traversing cutting-edge theoretical discourse and illuminating the ways in which Hegel inhabits them.

‘Ethics’ by Benedict de Spinoza | AudioBook

This audiobook edition published by Tantor Audio in 2011 and read by Antony Ferguson.


Benedict de Spinoza’s Ethics, first published in 1677, constitutes a major systematic critique of the traditional and religious foundations of philosophical thought. In it, Spinoza follows a logical step-by-step format consisting of definitions, axioms, propositions, proofs, and corollaries to create a comprehensive inquiry into the truth about God, nature, and humans’ place within the universe. From these broad metaphysical themes, Spinoza derives what he considered to be the highest principles of religion and society and lays out an ethical system in which reason is the supreme value.

Slavoj Žižek: “Is It Still Possible to be a Hegelian Today?” | Video

What is our contemporary world in the eyes of Hegel?
Can we still be Hegelians today?

A paper presentation by Slavoj Žižek at the Freie Universität Berlin in March 2011. A chapter with the same title later appeared published in his magnum opus Less than Nothing: Hegel and the Shadow of Dialectical Materialism.

Source: https://www.fu-berlin.de/sites/dhc/zVideothek/992Hegel_Lecture_mit_Slavoj_Zizek/index.html

‘Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature: Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830), Part 2’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by Clarendon Press in 2004. Download link and description updated on 25. June 2021.


This reissue of the standard English translation of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature, by A. V. Miller originally published in 1970. It forms the second integral part of his system of The Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences, following “the lesser or smaller Logic”, succeeded by The Philosophy of Spirit.

Includes his lecture notes [Zusatze] and should be of interest to students and scholars of Hegel, the history of European thought or German classical philosophy (most often classified as “German Idealism”).

‘The Encyclopaedia Logic: The Encyclopaedia of Philosophical Sciences 1 with the Zusätze’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by Hackett Publishing Company, Inc. in 1991. Download link updated on 25. June 2021.


This is the earlier English translation of Hegel’s Encyclopaedia Logic prepared by Theodore F. Geraets, W.A. Suchting & H.S. Harris. It includes a very detailed introduction about Hegel’s usage of German, which not only serves as a guide for translators, but also for the reader to more accurately grasp Hegel.

Also included are a detailed bilingual annotated glossary, very extensive bibliographic and interpretive notes to Hegel’s text, an index of references for works cited in the notes, a select bibliography of works on Hegel’s logic, and a detailed index.

While the new “Cambridge Translation” has technically succeeded this earlier translation as a point of reference, it might still be of use and value to students and scholars of Hegel’s work and German Classical Philosophy in general.

‘Encyclopedia of the Philosophical Sciences in Basic Outline, Part I: Science of Logic’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by Cambridge University Press in 2010. Download link updated on 25. June 2021.


This volume presents the new “Cambridge Translation” of Hegel’s Encyclopaedia Logic (also unofficially sometimes called “the smaller Logic”), which constitutes the foundation of his system of philosophy as presented in his overarching and comprehensive Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences.

Together with his Science of Logic (or “the bigger Logic”), it contains the most explicit formulation of his enduringly influential dialectical method and of the categorical system underlying his thought. It offers a more compact presentation of his method than is found elsewhere, and also incorporates changes that he would have made to the second edition of the Science of Logic if he had lived to do so.

Including helpful introduction and notes, it should be a valuable reference work for scholars and students of Hegel and German Classical Philosophy, as well as for those who are interested in the post-Hegelian character of contemporary philosophy.

Hegel’s Discovery of the Philosophy of Spirit: Autonomy, Alienation, and the Ethical Life: The Jena Lectures 1802-1806


Hegel’s Discovery of the Philosophy of Spirit explores Hegel’s critique of the individualistic ethos of modernity, and the genesis of his alternative vision. Hegel, following Hölderlin and Fichte, sees the conflict between the autonomy trumpeted by philosophers, and the sense of rupture and alienation characteristic of the individual’s experience of life, as the fundamental existential dilemma of the post-Enlightenment era. Viewing the reflective philosophy of subjectivity as the source of this malaise, Hegel suggests that the key to overcoming it lies in rejection of the subjectivist approach and its replacement by a new model of what it means to be an individual. In the early Jena writings, he experiments with various formulations of this insight. Hegel’s Discovery of the Philosophy of Spirit traces the process by which Hegel arrives at this new conception, a process culminating in the second Jena ‘Philosophy of Spirit’ lectures.

Hegel and the Human Spirit: Jena Lectures on the Philosophy of Spirit (1805-6)

Published by Wayne State University Press in 1983. Download link updated on 26. June 2021.


Hegel’s lectures on the philosophy of spirit, based own lecture notes, with marginal additions, sometimes containing no more than headings or points to be elaborated in the lecture room. The preface and commentary take up 81 pages and the translation of the text just over one hundred.

First published by Hoffmeister as Jensener Realphilosophie II in 1931 by the Felix Meiner Verlag, have exercised considerable influence on German and Anglo-Saxon interpretation of his political philosophy. Among the writers who have analyzed them to greater or lesser degree have been Lukacs, Marcuse, Habermas, Avineri, Plant, Taylor, Cullen and H.S. Harris.

‘On Christianity: Early Theological Writings’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by University of Pennsylvania Press in 1971. Download link updated on 26. June 2021.


Hegel was born in Stuttgart in 1770, when the Age of Reason and Enlightenment was closing and the day of the Romantics was at hand. Both these contemporary influences affected his thinking, and he derived another, no less powerful, from his early education at the Stuttgart Gymnasium. This was the influence of Greek and Roman ideas.

The realms of learning which attracted him most during his school years were religion and history, and especially the history of religion. A paper On the Religion of the Greeks and Romans by the seventeen-year-old Hegel shows that his philosophical genius was already alive. “The wise men of Greece,” he wrote in this essay, “thought that the deity had endowed every man with means and energies sufficient for his happiness and that it had modeled the nature of things in such a way as to make it possible for true happiness to be obtained by wisdom and human goodness.” Other papers are even more philosophical. One has the title “On the Judgment of Common Sense about Objectivity and Subjectivity of Ideas.”

This volume includes Hegel’s most important early theological writings, though not all of the materials collected by Herman Nohl in his definitive Hegels theologische Jugendschriften (Tuebingen, 1907). The most significant omissions are a series of fragments to which Nohl give the general title “National Religion and Christianity” and the essay “Life of Jesus.”

‘Difference Between Fichte’s and Schelling’s System of Philosophy’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by SUNY Press in 1977. Download link updated on 27. June 2021.


In this essay, Hegel attempted to show how Fichte’s Science of Knowledge was an advance from the position of Kant in the Critique of Pure Reason, and how Schelling (and incidentally Hegel himself) had made a further advance from the position of Fichte.

Hegel finds the idealism of Fichte too abstractly subjective and formalistic, and he tries to show how Schelling’s philosophy of nature is the remedy for these weaknesses. But the most important philosophical content of the essay is probably to be found in his general introduction to these critical efforts where he deals with a number of problems about philosophical method in a way which is of general interest to philosophers, and not merely interesting to those who accept the Hegelian “dialectic method” which grew out of these first beginnings. Finally, the Difference essay is important in the development of “Nature-Philosophy” as a movement in the history of science.

The student will find these texts indispensable to understanding the essentials of Hegel’s early development.

‘The Philosophical Propaedeutic’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by Blackwell Publishers in 1986.


What is remarkable about Hegel’s creative activity (in the period 1808-12) is the diversity of its contrasts: his thinking and writing of Science of Logic was going on while he was caught up in the daily tasks of newspaper editorship and then of school-teaching and administration.

The contrast is enhanced if we include his Philosophical Propaedeutic here, and place it against Science of Logic. (We can regard them as having been written almost simultaneously.) The latter book is intended for the learned specialist, and is concerned with elucidating the ultimate structure of reality in the most abstract terms. As a work of philosophy it is technical to an extreme; it is his most recondite work, making no concessions to the difficulties a reader might encounter.

The Philosophical Propaedeutic, on the other hand, was intended for the student at secondary school and junior college, and is concerned in part with the concrete social values embedded in social morality and religion. As a work, it is entirely accessible and “open”, and it represents Hegel’s attempt to lead his students from their view of the immediate social reality up to an all-encompassing world-view. There is a further contrast in the fact that it was not written as a book at all, but as a series of lecture-notes, and was put together as a book by Karl Rosenkranz, nine years after Hegel’s death.

Obviously it was because there was no university post for him that he accepted the position of Rector and Professor of Philosophy at the Aegidien Gymnasium in Nuremberg, in 1808. Yet his acceptance was not accompanied by the attitude of fame de mieux — as though “the speculative Pegasus were being harnessed to the wagon of schoolwork.” Rather, he accepted with enthusiasm. Since Napoleon had suppressed the freedom of university activity in Germany, a gymnasium post offered the only field for creative intellectual expression connected with teaching. Bavaria had been made a part of the new Confederation of the Rhine, established by Napoleon when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire. Hegel supported the French cause as a hoped-for way of liberating German thought and civilization (especially in heavily Catholic Bavaria).

‘Outlines of the Philosophy of Right’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by Oxford University Press in 2008. Houlgate’s updated translation of Knox’s 1965 translation.
Download link updated on 22. June 2021.

(.pdf, .epub)

What is rational is actual and what is actual is rational. Hegel’s Outlines of the Philosophy of Right is one of the greatest works of moral, social, and political philosophy. It contains significant ideas on justice, moral responsibility, family life, economic activity, and the political structure of the state–all matters of profound interest to us today. Hegel shows that genuine human freedom does not consist in doing whatever we please, but involves living with others in accordance with publicly recognized rights and laws.

Hegel demonstrates that institutions such as the family and the state provide the context in which individuals can flourish and enjoy full freedom. He also demonstrates that misunderstanding the true nature of freedom can lead to crime, evil, and poverty. His penetrating analysis of the causes of poverty in modern civil society was to be a great influence on Karl Marx. Hegel’s study remains one of the most subtle and perceptive accounts of freedom that we possess, and this newly revised translation makes it more accessible than ever.

This edition incorporates Hegel’s lecture notes within the text and provides a glossary of key terms, up-to-date bibliography, and invaluable notes.

‘Hegel’s Realm of Shadows: Logic as Metaphysics in The Science of Logic’ by Robert B. Pippin

Published by University of Chicago Press in 2018.

(.pdf, .epub)

Hegel frequently claimed that the heart of his entire system was a book widely regarded as among the most difficult in the history of philosophy, The Science of Logic. This is the book that presents his metaphysics, an enterprise that he insists can only be properly understood as a “logic,” or a “science of pure thinking.” Since he also wrote that the proper object of any such logic is pure thinking itself, it has always been unclear in just what sense such a science could be a “metaphysics.” 

Robert B. Pippin offers here a bold, original interpretation of Hegel’s claim that only now, after Kant’s critical breakthrough in philosophy, can we understand how logic can be a metaphysics. Pippin addresses Hegel’s deep, constant reliance on Aristotle’s conception of metaphysics, the difference between Hegel’s project and modern rationalist metaphysics, and the links between the “logic as metaphysics” claim and modern developments in the philosophy of logic. Pippin goes on to explore many other facets of Hegel’s thought, including the significance for a philosophical logic of the self-conscious character of thought, the dynamism of reason in Kant and Hegel, life as a logical category, and what Hegel might mean by the unity of the idea of the true and the idea of the good in the “Absolute Idea.” The culmination of Pippin’s work on Hegel and German idealism, this is a book that no Hegel scholar or historian of philosophy will want to miss.

Robert B. Pippin is the Evelyn Stefansson Nef Distinguished Service Professor in the John U. Nef Committee on Social Thought, the Department of Philosophy, and the College at the University of Chicago. He is the author of many books on philosophy, literature, art, and film.

‘Hegel on Self-Consciousness: Desire and Death in the Phenomenology of Spirit’ by Robert B. Pippin

Published by Princeton University Press in 2014.

(.pdf, .epub)

In the most influential chapter of his most important philosophical work, the Phenomenology of Spirit, Hegel makes the central and disarming assertions that “self-consciousness is desire itself” and that it attains its “satisfaction” only in another self-consciousness. Hegel on Self-Consciousness presents a groundbreaking new interpretation of these revolutionary claims, tracing their roots to Kant’s philosophy and demonstrating their continued relevance for contemporary thought.

As Robert Pippin shows, Hegel argues that we must understand Kant’s account of the self-conscious nature of consciousness as a claim in practical philosophy, and that therefore we need radically different views of human sentience, the conditions of our knowledge of the world, and the social nature of subjectivity and normativity. Pippin explains why this chapter of Hegel’s Phenomenology should be seen as the basis of much later continental philosophy and the Marxist, neo-Marxist, and critical-theory traditions. He also contrasts his own interpretation of Hegel’s assertions with influential interpretations of the chapter put forward by philosophers John McDowell and Robert Brandom.

‘Hegel’s Idealism: The Satisfactions of Self-Consciousness’ by Robert B. Pippin


Robert Pippin offers a completely new interpretation of Hegel’s idealism, which focuses on Hegel’s appropriation and development of kant’s theoretical project. Hegel is presented neither as a precritical metaphysician nor as a social theorist, but as a critical philosopher whose disagreements with Kant, especially on the issue of intuitions, enrich the idealist arguments against empiricism, realism and naturalism. In the face of the dismissal of absolute idealism as either unintelligible or implausible, Pippin explains and defends an original account of the philosophical basis for Hegel’s claims about the historical and social nature of selfconsciousness, and so of knowledge itself.

‘Hegel: Three Studies’ by Theodor W. Adorno

Published by The MIT Press in 1993. Download link updated on 23. June 2021.


This short masterwork in twentieth-century philosophy provides both a major reinterpretation of Hegel and insight into the evolution of Adorno’s critical theory. The first study focuses on the relationship of reason, the individual, and society in Hegel, defending him against the criticism that he was merely an apologist for bourgeois society. The second examines the experiential content of Hegel’s idealism, considering the notion of experience in relation to immediacy, empirical reality, science, and society. The third study, “Skoteinos,” is an unusual and fascinating essay in which Adorno lays out his thoughts on understanding Hegel. In his reflections, which spring from his experience of teaching at the Goethe University in Frankfurt, questions of textual and philosophical interpretation are intertwined.

‘Political Writings’ by Georg W. F. Hegel

Published by Cambridge University Press in 1999. Download link and description updated on 27. June 2021.


This collection gathers together in English translation Hegel’s most important political writings, apart from the Philosophy of Right, and provides insights into how Hegel’s educational and religious views conflicted with the political values around which Prussian authorities organized their authoritarian regime.

The ethical and metaphysical texts in this collection both illuminate and contrast with those political and historical texts in which Hegel draws important conclusions about the modern world from remarkable comparative analyses of recent developments in England, France and Germany.

The translator of these texts, H. B. Nisbet, was responsible for the acclaimed rendition of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, and Lawrence Dickey’s lucid editorial commentary introduces this distinctive corpus of political writing by one of the very greatest thinkers in the European tradition.

With a full chronology, general introduction, explanatory annotation, glossary and bibliography, this volume seeks to give students with no specialist knowledge access to both the practical and metaphysical aspects of Hegel’s political thought.

‘Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit’ by Stephen Houlgate

Published by Bloomsbury Academic in 2012. Download link updated on 29. June 2021.

(.pdf, .epub)

Published in 1807, Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit is one of the most important and famous works in the Western philosophical tradition, containing many different memorable analyses, from Sophocles’ Antigone to the French Revolution, which has exercised considerable influence on subsequent thinkers from Feuerbach and Marx to Heidegger, Kojève, Adorno and Derrida among others.

Often studied together with a secondary text, commentary usually explores its historical background and philosophical relevance, while the attempt here is to present in detail and as clearly as possible how its inner continuous logical argument proceeds and why it might be deemed successful.

Specific criticisms of Hegel’s ideas and other interpretations of his work have not been covered and only the accounts of the first four chapters of the book are given, setting up the stage all the way up to consciousness and self-consciousness, including the parts on sense-certainty, the master-slave relation and the unhappy consciousness.

Although the remaining chapters on reason, spirit, religion and absolute knowing are important, the presentation of the first four chapters should be enough to make headway in Hegel’s text by one’s own, while engaging in the effort of filling in the missing details from chapters five to eight by themselves.

Stephen Houlgate is Professor of Philosophy at the University of Warwick and is the author of several works on Hegel including An Introduction to Hegel’s Philosophy and The Opening of Hegel’s Logic. He has served as the President of the Hegel Society of Great Britain since 2011 and has been teaching Hegel’s Logic for over 30 years.

‘The Opening of Hegel’s Logic: From Being to Infinity’ by Stephen Houlgate

Published by Purdue University Press in 2005. Download link updated on 29. June 2021.

(.pdf, .epub)

Georg W. F. Hegel is held as the most important of modern philosophers, whose thought influenced the development of everything from existentialism, Marxism, pragmatism, hermeneutics, to deconstruction and beyond. Yet Science of Logic, which is his central and monumental work, for most readers still remains a firmly closed book.

The Opening of Hegel’s Logic dispels the myths that surround the Logic, shows that it’s an unjustly neglected work of extraordinary subtlety and insight and argues that Hegel’s project of a presuppositionless science of logic is one that deserves serious reconsideration today. It aims to help students and scholars read Hegel’s often difficult text for themselves and discover the wealth of philosophical ideas it contains.

Part I argues that the Logic provides a rigorous derivation of the fundamental categories of thought and contrasts Hegel’s approach to the categories of Kant. It goes on to examine the historical and linguistic presuppositions of Hegel’s self-critical, “presuppositionless” logic and, in the process, considers several signifi­cant criticisms of such logic advanced by Schelling, Feuerbach, Gadamer, and Kierkegaard.

Separate chapters are devoted to the relation between logic and ontology in Hegel’s Logic and to the relation between the Logic itself and the Phenomenology.

Part II contains the text – German and English – of the first two chapters of Hegel’s Logic, which cover such categories as being, becoming, something, limit, finitude, and infinity.

Part III provides a clear commentary on these two chapters that examines Hegel’s arguments in detail and relates his insights to those of other philosophers, such as Descartes, Spinoza, Kant, Nietzsche, and Levinas.

‘A lecture on Hegel’ by Theodor W. Adorno (1956) | English subtitles

The German philosopher Theodor W. Adorno gives a lecture on Hegel in 1956 titled “Bemerkung zu Hegel”. The translation mostly comes from the Shierry Weber Nicholsen translation, though parts are due to the video uploader as well. Use the YouTube CC button to enable the English subtitles.

Theodor Wiesengrund Adorno was one of the most important philosophers and social critics in Germany after World War II. Although less well known among anglophone philosophers than his contemporary Hans-Georg Gadamer, Adorno had even greater influence on scholars and intellectuals in postwar Germany. In the 1960s he was the most prominent challenger to both Sir Karl Popper’s philosophy of science and Martin Heidegger’s philosophy of existence. Jürgen Habermas, Germany’s foremost social philosopher after 1970, was Adorno’s student and assistant. The scope of Adorno’s influence stems from the interdisciplinary character of his research and of the Frankfurt School to which he belonged. It also stems from the thoroughness with which he examined Western philosophical traditions, especially from Kant onward, and the radicalness to his critique of contemporary Western society. He was a seminal social philosopher and a leading member of the first generation of Critical Theory.

Unreliable translations hampered the initial reception of Adorno’s published work in English speaking countries. Since the 1990s, however, better translations have appeared, along with newly translated lectures and other posthumous works that are still being published. These materials not only facilitate an emerging assessment of his work in epistemology and ethics but also strengthen an already advanced reception of his work in aesthetics and cultural theory.

‘An Introduction to Hegel: Freedom, Truth, and History’ (Second Edition) by Stephen Houlgate

Published by Wiley-Blackwell in 2005.

(.epub & .pdf)

This classic introduction to one of the most influential modern thinkers, G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831), has now been updated and expanded to make it even more comprehensive. The book covers every aspect of Hegel’s mature thought, including his philosophy of history, logic, political philosophy, aesthetics and philosophy of religion.

For the second edition, five completely new chapters have been added; two on both the Phenomenology and the Philosophy of Nature, and one on the Philosophy of Subjective Spirit. In the course of the book, the author relates Hegel’s ideas to those of many other thinkers, including Luther, Descartes, Kant, Newton and Thomas Kuhn. He clearly shows that Hegel’s is a viable philosophical enterprise with important theories to contribute to a number of modern debates.

Although written for those new to the study of Hegel, specialists will welcome the book’s distinctive and challenging interpretation of Hegel’s work, which takes seriously his claim to have developed a philosophy which is ‘presuppositionless’.

‘Hegel, Nietzsche and the Criticism of Metaphysics’ by Stephen Houlgate

Published by Cambridge University Press in 1986. Download link updated on 29. June 2021.


This study of Hegel and Nietzsche evaluates and compares their work through their common criticism of the metaphysics for operating with conceptual oppositions such as being/becoming and egoism/altruism.

Houlgate exposes Nietzsche’s critique as employing the distinction of Life and Thought, which itself constitutes a metaphysical dualism of the kind Nietzsche generally attacks.

By comparison Hegel is shown to provide a more profound critique of metaphysical dualism by applying his philosophy of the dialectic, which sees such alleged opposites as defining components of a dynamic.

In studying a theme so fundamental to both philosophers’ work, Houlgate has established a framework within which to evaluate the Hegel-Nietzsche relation; to make the first full study of Nietzsche’s dismissal of Hegel’s work; and to compare Nietzsche’s Dionysic philosophy with Hegel’s dialectical philosophy by focusing on tragedy, a subject central to the philosophy of both.

‘German Idealism Today’ edited by Markus Gabriel and Anders Moe Rasmussen

Published by De Gruyter in 2017. Download link updated on 24. June 2021.

(.pdf, .epub)

This collection of essays provides an exemplary overview of the diversity and relevance of current scholarship on German Idealism. The importance of German Idealism for contemporary philosophy has received growing attention and acknowledgment throughout competing fields of contemporary philosophy. Part of the growing interest rests on the claim that the works of Kant, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel remain of considerable interest for cultural studies, sociology, theology, aesthetics and other areas of interest.

In the domain of philosophy, the renaissance of innovative readings of German Idealism has taken scholarly debates beyond merely antiquarian perspectives. This renaissance has been a major factor of current efforts to bridge the gap between so-called “analytic” and so-called “continental” philosophy.

The volume provides a selection of well-chosen examples of readings that contribute to systematic treatments of philosophical problems. It contains (among others) contributions by Markus Gabriel, Robert Pippin, Anders Moe Rasmussen, Sebastian Rödl.

‘Hegel’s Concept of Life: Self-Consciousness, Freedom, Logic’ by Karen Ng


Karen Ng sheds new light on Hegel’s famously impenetrable philosophy. She does so by offering a new interpretation of Hegel’s idealism and by foregrounding Hegel’s Science of Logic, revealing that Hegel’s theory of reason revolves around the concept of organic life.

Beginning with the influence of Kant’s Critique of Judgment on Hegel, Ng argues that Hegel’s key philosophical contributions concerning self-consciousness, freedom, and logic all develop around the idea of internal purposiveness, which appealed to Hegel deeply. She charts the development of the purposiveness theme in Kant’s third Critique, and argues that the most important innovation from that text is the claim that the purposiveness of nature opens up and enables the operation of the power of judgment. This innovation is essential for understanding Hegel’s philosophical method in the Differenzschrift (1801) and Phenomenology of Spirit (1807), where Hegel, developing lines of thought from Fichte and Schelling, argues against Kant that internal purposiveness constitutes cognition’s activity, shaping its essential relation to both self and world.

From there, Ng defends a new and detailed interpretation of Hegel’s Science of Logic, arguing that Hegel’s Subjective Logic can be understood as Hegel’s version of a critique of judgment, in which life comes to be understood as opening up the possibility of intelligibility. She makes the case that Hegel’s theory of judgment is modelled on reflective and teleological judgments, in which something’s species or kind provides the objective context for predication. The Subjective Logic culminates in the argument that life is a primitive or original activity of judgment, one that is the necessary presupposition for the actualization of self-conscious cognition.

Through bold and ambitious new arguments, Ng demonstrates the ongoing dialectic between life and self-conscious cognition, providing ground-breaking ways of understanding Hegel’s philosophical system.

‘G.W.F. Hegel: Critical Assessments’ by Robert Stern | 4 Volumes

Published by Routledge in 1993. Download link updated on 27. June 2021.

(.pdf – 4 volumes)

G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831), arguably the greatest philosopher of the nineteenth century, decisively influenced the direction of all subsequent European thought. Variously understood as a theist and an atheist, a conservative and a liberal, an essentialist and a proto-existentialist, a rationalist and an irrationalist, the ambiguities of Hegel’s position mean that `interpreting Hegel means taking a stand on all the philosophical, political and religious problems of our century’. (Merleau-Ponty).

This collection of writings on Hegel reflects the many-sided nature of Hegel’s reception from 1831 onwards, and also offers critical studies on the full range of his work. The four volumes incorporate the classic readings of Hegel, from both the continental and analytic traditions, and also include the central twentieth century readings of his work. Each volume is provided with a clear and helpful introduction which sets the articles in their historical context and highlights the central philosophical issues that they raise.

Table of Contents:

VOL. I – Nineteenth-Century Readings

1. General introduction / Robert Stern
2. Introduction / Robert Stern
3. Hegel (1824) / Johann Amadeus Wendt
4. Extract from On the History of Modern Philosophy (1833-4) / F.W.J. Schelling
5. Extract from Concluding Unscientific Postscript (1846) / Sören Kierkegaard
6. Towards a critique of Hegel’s philosophy (1839) / Ludwig Feuerbach
7. Extract from The Trumpet of the La.st Judgment over Hegel the Atheist and Antichrist: An Ultimatum (1841) / Bruno Bauer
8. Extract from Critique of Hegel’s Doctrine of the State (1843) / Karl Marx
9. Extract from Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844) / Karl Marx
10. Extract from The Logical Question in Hegel’s System (1843) / Friedrich Adolf Trendelenburg
11. Extract from Hegel and his Times (1857) / Rudolf Haym
12. The dialectic and the principle of contradiction (1871) C.L. Michelet
13. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Mind (1870) / Karl Rosenkranz
14. The Science of Logic (1870) / Karl Rosenkranz
15. Extract from The Secret of Hegel (1865) / J.H. Stirling
16. Extract from The General Principles of the Philosophy of Nature (1848) / Johann B. Stallo
17. Extract from Hegel’s Logic: A Book on the Genesis of the Categories of the Mind (1890) / W.T. Harris

VOL. II – Late Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Readings: From British Hegelianism to the Frankfurt School

18. Introduction / Robert Stern
19. Extract from Hegelianism and Personality (1887) / Andrew Seth
20. Darwin and Hegel (1890) / D.G. Ritchie
21. The changes of method in Hegel’s dialectic (1892) / J. Ellis McTaggart
22. Time and the Hegelian dialectic (1893-4) / J. Ellis McTaggart
23. Extract from The Philosophical Theory of the State (1899) / Bernard Bosanquet
24. Nominalism versus realism, and What is meant by’ determined’ (1868) / W. T. Harris and C. S. Peirce
25. Kant and philosophic method (1884) / John Dewey
26. Extract from Thought and Reality in Hegel’s System (1910) / Gustavus Watts Cunningham
27. Extract from Lectures on Modem Idealism (1919) / Josiah Royce
28. Extract from A Pluralistic Universe (1909) / William James
29. The reform of Hegelian dialectic (1912) / Giovanni Gentile
30. Extract from What is Living and What is Dead of the Philosophy of Hegel (1907) / Benedetto Croce
31. The historicism of Hegel and the new historicism (1942) / Benedetto Croce
32. An unknown page from the last months of the life ofHegel (1948) / Benedetto Croce
33. Extract from The Unhappy Consciousness in the Philosophy of Hegel (1929) / Jean Wahl
34. The idea of death in the philosophy of Hegel (1947) / Alexandre Kojeve
35. Hegel, Marx and Christianity (1946) / Alexandre Kojeve
36. Hegel, death and sacrifice (1955) / Georges Bataille
37. The human situation in the Hegelian phenomenology (1947) / Jean Hyppolite
38. On the Logic of Hegel (1952) / Jean Hyppolite
39. Hegel’s existentialism (1948) / Maurice Merleau-Ponty
40. Extract from Being and Nothingness (1943) / Jean-Paul Sartre
41. Speech and writing according to Hegel (1971) / Jacques Derrida
42. Extract from The Young Hegel (1948) / Georg Lukacs
43. Marx’s relation to Hegel (1968) / Louis Althusser
44. Extract from Negative Dialectics (1966) / Theodor W. Adorno
45. Extract from Knowledge and Human Interests {1968) / Jürgen Habermas
46. Labour and interaction: Remarks on Hegel’s Jena Philosophy of Mind (1967) / Jürgen Habermas

VOL. III – Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit and Logic

47. Introduction / Robert Stern


48. Hegel’s phenomenological method / Kenley Royce Dove
49. Hegel’s phenomenological criticism / Robert B. Pippin
50. Dialectic and the rote of the phenomenologist / Wemer Marx
51. Hegel’s image of phenomenology / H. S. Harris
52. Hegel’s Phenomenology as introduction to science / William Maker
53. Foundationalism, holism or Hegel? / David S. Stern
54. ‘Sense-certainty’ and universality: Hegel’s entrance into the Phenomenology / Martin J. De Nys
55. Hegel’s ‘inverted world’ / Hans-Georg Gadamer
56. Hegel’s ‘inverted world’ / Joseph C. Flay
57. Notes on Hegel’s ‘lordship and bondage’ / George Armstrang Kelly
58. Extract from Antigones / George Steiner
59. Hegel’s Phenomenology: an elegy for Hellas / Judith N. Shklar


60. The idea of Hegel’s Logic / Hans-Georg Gadamer
61. Hegel: a non-metaphysical view / Klaus Hartmann
62. Understanding Regel today / William Maker
63. Conceiving reality without foundations: Hegel’s neglected strategy for Realphilosophie / Richard Dien Winfield
64. Hegel’s system as the theory and practice of interpretation / H. S. Harris
65. From Vorstellung to thought: is a ‘non-metaphysical’ view of Hegel possible? / Michael Rosen
66. Transition or reftection / John Burbidge
67. Reftection and contradiction: a commentary on some passages of Hegel’s Science of Logic / George di Giovanni
68. Hegel’s metaphysics and the problem of contradiction / Robert B. Pippin
69. Essence and time in Hegel / Joseph C. Flay
70. Hegel’s theory of the concept / Merold Westphal
71. Hegel’s speculative sentence / Jere Paul Surber
72. Hegel’s two dialeelies / Nancy Shennan
73. The relation of thought and being: some lessons from Hegel’s Encyclopaedia / John E. Smith
74. Hegel’s idealism and Hegel’s Logic / Terry Pinkard
75. Constitution and structure of self-identity: Kant’s theory of apperception and Hegel’s criticism / Klaus Düsing
76. Hegel and idealism / Karl Ameriks
77. Hegel’s concept of Geist / Robert R. Williams

VOL. IV – Hegel’s Philosophy of Nature and Philosophy of Spirit

78. Introduction / Robert Stern


79. Hegel’s philosophy of nature and the structure of science / Gerd Buchdahl
80. A re-interpretation of Hegel’s philosophy of nature / George R. Lucas
81. Hegel’s criticism of Newton / M. J. Petry


82. Hegel’s philosophy of mind / Charles Taylor
83. Hegel’s triadic doctrine of cognitive mind’ / Murray Greene
84. Language and consciousness in Hegel’s Jena writings / Daniel J. Cook
85. Hegel on representation and thougbt / Willern de Vries


86. Freedom and sodal categories in Hegel’s ethics / Terry Pinkard
87. The emptiness of the moral will / Allen W. Wood
88. The Phenomenology: beyond morality / Judith N. Shklar
89. Economic and social integration in Hegel’s politicalphilosophy / Raymond Plant
90. Political community and individual freedom in Hegel’s philosophy of state / Z. A. Pelczynski
91. The dialectic of civil society / K.-H. Ilting
92. Hegel on property and personality / Dudley Knowles
93. Hegel’s critique of liberal theories of rigbts* / Peter G. Stillman
94. Hegel and liberalism / Richard Bellamy
95. Hegel’s ambiguous legacy for modern liberalism / Charles Taylor


96. Hegel’s political theory and philosophy of history / Philip J. Kain
97. Hegel and historicism / Stanley Rosen
98. World history as the progress of consciousness: an interpretation of Hegel’s philosophy of history / Stephen Houlgate


99. The contemporary relevance of Hegel’s aesthetics / Dieter Henrich
100. Extract from Aesthetics and Subjectivity: From Kant to Nietzsche / Adrew Bowie


101. Christianity and secularity in Hegel’s concept of the state / Walter Jaeschke
102. Hegel’s approach to religion: the dialectic ofspeculation and phenomenology / Peter C. Hodgson
103. Hegel’s critique of religion / B. C. Birchall

‘The Interpretation of Dreams’ by Sigmund Freud | AudioBook

This audiobook edition published by Ukemi Audiobooks in 2017 and read by Derek Le Page.


The Interpretation of Dreams by Sigmund Freud is one of the most significant books of the 20th century. Though dreams and their role in human consciousness have been a continuing thread in religion and art and life down the centuries, Freud’s look at the subject through the prism of his emerging practice and study of psychoanalysis provided a startlingly new and challenging perspective.

‘The Structure of World History: From Modes of Production to Modes of Exchange’ by Kōjin Karatani

Published by Duke University Press in 2014.

(.epub, .pdf)

In this major, paradigm-shifting work, Kojin Karatani systematically re-reads Marx’s version of world history, shifting the focus of critique from modes of production to modes of exchange. Karatani seeks to understand both Capital-Nation-State, the interlocking system that is the dominant form of modern global society, and the possibilities for superseding it. In The Structure of World History, he traces different modes of exchange, including the pooling of resources that characterizes nomadic tribes, the gift exchange systems developed after the adoption of fixed-settlement agriculture, the exchange of obedience for protection that arises with the emergence of the state, the commodity exchanges that characterize capitalism, and, finally, a future mode of exchange based on the return of gift exchange, albeit modified for the contemporary moment. He argues that this final stage—marking the overcoming of capital, nation, and state—is best understood in light of Kant’s writings on eternal peace. The Structure of World History is in many ways the capstone of Karatani’s brilliant career, yet it also signals new directions in his thought.

‘Transcritique: On Kant and Marx’ by Kōjin Karatani

Published by MIT Press in 2003. Download link updated on 23. December 2021.


Kojin Karatani’s Transcritique introduces a startlingly new dimension to Immanuel Kant’s transcendental critique by using Kant to read Karl Marx and Marx to read Kant. In a direct challenge to standard academic approaches to both thinkers, Karatani’s transcritical readings discover the ethical roots of socialism in Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason and a Kantian critique of money in Marx’s Capital.

Karatani reads Kant as a philosopher who sought to wrest metaphysics from the discredited realm of theoretical dogma in order to restore it to its proper place in the sphere of ethics and praxis. With this as his own critical model, he then presents a reading of Marx that attempts to liberate Marxism from longstanding Marxist and socialist presuppositions in order to locate a solid theoretical basis for a positive activism capable of gradually superseding the trinity of Capital-Nation-State.

Inspiration for Slavoj Žižek’s concept of parallax as seen in The Parallax View and Parallax: The Dialectics of Mind and World.

Kōjin Karatani (柄谷 行人 Karatani Kōjin, born August 6, 1941, Amagasaki) is a Japanese philosopher and literary critic.

Educated at University of Tokyo, where he received a BA in economics and an MA in English literature. The Gunzō Literary Prize, which he received at the age of 27 for an essay on Natsume Sōseki, was his first critical acclaim as a literary critic. While teaching at Hosei University, Tokyo, he wrote extensively about modernity and postmodernity with a particular focus on language, number, and money, concepts that form the subtitle of one of his central books: Architecture as Metaphor.

In 1975, he was invited to Yale University to teach Japanese literature as a visiting professor, where he met Paul de Man and Fredric Jameson and began to work on formalism. Starting from a study of Natsume Sōseki, the variety of the subjects examined by Karatani became so wide that he earned the nickname The Thinking Machine.

Karatani collaborated with novelist Kenji Nakagami, to whom he introduced the works of Faulkner. With Nakagami, he published Kobayashi Hideo o koete (Overcoming Kobayashi Hideo). The title is an ironic reference to “Kindai no chokoku” (Overcoming Modernity), a symposium held in the summer of 1942 at Kyoto Imperial University (now Kyoto University) at which Hideo Kobayashi (whom Karatani and Nakagami did not hold in great esteem) was a participant.

He was also a regular member of ANY, the international architects’ conference that was held annually for the last decade of the 20th century and that also published an architectural/philosophical series with Rizzoli under the general heading of Anyone.

Since 1990, Karatani has been regularly teaching at Columbia University as a visiting professor.

Karatani founded the New Associationist Movement (NAM) in Japan in the summer of 2000. NAM was conceived as a counter–capitalist/nation-state association, inspired by the experiment of LETS (Local Exchange Trading Systems, based on non-marketed currency). He was also the co-editor, with Akira Asada, of the Japanese quarterly journal, Hihyōkūkan (Critical Space), until it ended in 2002.

In 2006, Karatani retired from the chair of the International Center for Human Sciences at Kinki University, Osaka, where he had been teaching.

‘The Parallax View’ by Slavoj Žižek

Published by MIT Press in 2006. Download link updated on 20th January 2022.

(.epub, .pdf)

The Parallax View is one of Slavoj Žižek’s most substantial theoretical works; at the time of publishing Žižek himself described it as his magnum opus. Parallax can be defined as the apparent displacement of an object, caused by a change in observational position. Žižek is interested in the “parallax gap” separating two points between which no synthesis or mediation is possible, linked by an “impossible short circuit” of levels that can never meet. From this consideration of parallax, Žižek begins a rehabilitation of dialectical materialism.

Modes of parallax can be seen in different domains of today’s theory, from the wave-particle duality in quantum physics to the parallax of the unconscious in Freudian psychoanalysis between interpretations of the formation of the unconscious and theories of drives. In The Parallax View, Žižek, with his usual astonishing erudition, focuses on three main modes of parallax: the ontological difference, the ultimate parallax that conditions our very access to reality; the scientific parallax, the irreducible gap between the phenomenal experience of reality and its scientific explanation, which reaches its apogee in today’s brain sciences (according to which “nobody is home” in the skull, just stacks of brain meat—a condition Žižek calls “the unbearable lightness of being no one”); and the political parallax, the social antagonism that allows for no common ground. Between his discussions of these three modes, Žižek offers interludes that deal with more specific topics—including an ethical act in a novel by Henry James and anti-anti-Semitism.

The Parallax View not only expands Žižek’s Lacanian-Hegelian approach to different domains (notably cognitive brain sciences) but also provides the systematic exposition of the conceptual framework that underlies his entire work. Philosophical and theological analysis, detailed readings of literature, cinema, and music coexist with lively anecdotes and obscene jokes.

‘After Hegel: German Philosophy, 1840–1900’ by Frederick C. Beiser

Published by Princeton University Press in 2016.

(.pdf & .epub)

Histories of German philosophy in the nineteenth century typically focus on its first half—when Hegel, idealism, and Romanticism dominated. By contrast, the remainder of the century, after Hegel’s death, has been relatively neglected because it has been seen as a period of stagnation and decline. But Frederick Beiser argues that the second half of the century was in fact one of the most revolutionary periods in modern philosophy because the nature of philosophy itself was up for grabs and the very absence of certainty led to creativity and the start of a new era.

In this innovative concise history of German philosophy from 1840 to 1900, Beiser focuses not on themes or individual thinkers but rather on the period’s five great debates: the identity crisis of philosophy, the materialism controversy, the methods and limits of history, the pessimism controversy, and the Ignorabimusstreit. Schopenhauer and Wilhelm Dilthey play important roles in these controversies but so do many neglected figures, including Ludwig Büchner, Eugen Dühring, Eduard von Hartmann, Julius Fraunstaedt, Hermann Lotze, Adolf Trendelenburg, and two women, Agnes Taubert and Olga Pluemacher, who have been completely forgotten in histories of philosophy. The result is a wide-ranging, original, and surprising new account of German philosophy in the critical period between Hegel and the twentieth century.

‘The Romantic Imperative: The Concept of Early German Romanticism’ by Frederick C. Beiser

Published by Harvard University Press in 2004.


The Early Romantics met resistance from artists and academics alike in part because they defied the conventional wisdom that philosophy and the arts must be kept separate. Indeed, as the literary component of Romanticism has been studied and celebrated in recent years, its philosophical aspect has receded from view. This book, by one of the most respected scholars of the Romantic era, offers an explanation of Romanticism that not only restores but enhances understanding of the movement’s origins, development, aims, and accomplishments—and of its continuing relevance.

Poetry is in fact the general ideal of the Romantics, Frederick Beiser tells us, but only if poetry is understood not just narrowly as poems but more broadly as things made by humans. Seen in this way, poetry becomes a revolutionary ideal that demanded—and still demands—that we transform not only literature and criticism but all the arts and sciences, that we break down the barriers between art and life, so that the world itself becomes “romanticized.” Romanticism, in the view Beiser opens to us, does not conform to the contemporary division of labor in our universities and colleges; it requires a multifaceted approach of just the sort outlined in this book.

‘German Idealism: The Struggle against Subjectivism (1781-1801)’ by Frederick C. Beiser


One of the very few accounts in English of German idealism, this ambitious work advances and revises our understanding of both the history and the thought of the classical period of German philosophy. As he traces the structure and evolution of idealism as a doctrine, Frederick Beiser exposes a strong objective, or realist, strain running from Kant to Hegel and identifies the crucial role of the early romantics—Hölderlin, Schlegel, and Novalis—as the founders of absolute idealism.

‘Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism: The Genesis of Modern German Political Thought, 1790–1800’ by Frederick C. Beiser

Published by Harvard University Press in 1992.

(.pdf & .epub)

“They join the greatest boldness in thought to the most obedient character.” So Madame de Stael described German intellectuals at the close of the 18th century, and her view of this schism between the intellectual and the political has stood virtually unchallenged for 200 years. This book lays to rest Madam de Stael’s legacy, the myth of the apolitical German. In a narrative history of ideas that proceeds from his book The Fate of ReasonFrederick Beiser discusses how the French Revolution, with a rationalism and an irrationalism that altered the world, transformed and politicized German philosophy and its central concern: the authority and limits of reason. In Germany, three antithetical political traditions—liberalism, conservatism, and romanticism—developed in response to the cataclysmic events in France.

Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism establishes the genesis and context of these traditions and illuminates their fundamental political ideas. Moving from such well-known figures as Kant, Fichte, Jacobi, Forster, and Moser, Beiser summarizes responses to the French Revolution by the major political thinkers of the period. He investigates the sources for their political theory before the 1790s and assesses the importance of politics for their thought in general. By concentrating on a single formative decade, Beiser aims to reveal the political values and purposes underlying German thought in the late 18th century and ultimately to clarify the place of practical reason in the German philosophical tradition.

Frederick C. Beiser is Professor of Philosophy at Syracuse University.