First written in 1929 and first published in German in 1930 as Das Unbehagen in der Kultur, Civilization and Its Discontents is one of the most influential works of pioneering psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Focusing on the tension between the primitive drives of the individual and the demands of civilization for order and conformity, Freud draws upon his psychoanalytic theories to explain the fundamental structures, conflicts, and consequences of society. Written in the aftermath of World War I, Civilization and Its Discontents advances the idea that humans’ instinctive desires—violent urges and sexual drives—create the need for law and structure, which, when implemented, create constant feelings of discontent. A seminal work in psychoanalysis, Civilization and Its Discontents has sparked debate since its publication and continues to be widely read today. This edition is the translation by James Strachey.